Ethiopia has a history of sheltering refugees and has long maintained an open-door asylum policy. The country hosts an estimated 769,000 refugees and other “people of concern.” Unlike in many other countries in the region, refugees have the right to access health care services in Ethiopia. However, after the onset of the Covid crisis, there have been reports of surging xenophobic sentiment as foreigners have been blamed for spreading the virus.
Refugees in Ethiopia were long forced to remain in designated camps. However, in early 2019, the government adopted a law giving refugees the right to live, work, and access other services outside the camps. Nevertheless, many people continue to reside within camps. In April, the government announced its intention to close Hitsats refugee camp and relocate all 27,000 inhabitants to Adi Harush and Mai Aini refugee camps, a move that UNHCR quickly criticised. Highlighting the need to avoid situations of overcrowding during the pandemic, the refugee agency warned that such a plan would risk exposing thousands to dangerous Covid outbreaks. (The number of cases in the country is already one of the highest in the continent: as of 19 August, it had recorded 32,722 cases and more than 570 deaths. On 9 June, the first case was confirmed within the refugee population.)
Previously, on 8 August, UNHCR reported that it had set up isolation units in all refugee camps to temporarily quarantine any suspected cases. The agency also said that it established 37,000 handwashing stations, trained more than 2,150 health and community outreach workers, and distributed 140,000 face masks.
The Global Detention Project has been unable to confirm many concrete details about Ethiopia’s immigration detention practices. However, there have been occasional reports of authorities arresting and deporting migrants as they pass through the country. These reports indicate that foreigners are detained in the country’s prisons prior to deportation. On 6 May, the Federal Commissioner for Prisons reported that 40,000 prisoners had been released since March (out of a total prison population of 110,000)–although no information is available confirming whether non-nationals in deportation procedures were amongst those released.
- Refugees International, “Covid-19 and the Displaced: Addressing the Threat of the Novel Coronavirus in Humanitarian Emergencies,” 30 March 2020, https://www.refugeesinternational.org/reports/2020/3/29/covid-19-and-the-displaced-addressing-the-threat-of-the-novel-coronavirus-in-humanitarian-emergencies
- C. D’Orsi, “Governments Need to do More for Refugees Affected by Coronavirus: Here’s How,” The Conversation, 15 April 2020, https://theconversation.com/governments-need-to-do-more-for-refugees-affected-by-coronavirus-heres-how-135861
- J. Ashly, “Eritrean Refugees in Ethiopia Resist Camp Closure amid COVID-19 Fears,” The New Humanitarian, 17 August 2020, https://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/news-feature/2020/08/17/Ethiopia-Eritrea-refugee-camps-coronavirus
- UNHCR, “Operational Portal – Refugee Situations: Ethiopia,” https://data2.unhcr.org/en/country/eth
- The Economic Times, “Ethiopia Records First Coronavirus Cases in Refugee Camps,” 10 June 2020, https://health.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/industry/ethiopia-records-first-coronavirus-cases-in-refugee-camps/76291703
- Xinhuanet, “Roundup: Measures Taken in All Refugee Camps in Ethiopia to Curb Covid-19 Spread,” 9 August 2020, http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2020-08/09/c_139275796.htm
- N. Bhalla, “Ethiopia Allows Almost 1 Million Refugees to Leave Camps and Work,” Reuters, 17 January 2019, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-ethiopia-refugees-rights/ethiopia-allows-almost-1-million-refugees-to-leave-camps-and-work-idUSKCN1PB2QH
- Global Detention Project, “Immigration Detention in Ethiopia – 2016 Update,” August 2016, https://www.globaldetentionproject.org/countries/africa/ethiopia
- Prison Insider, “Africa: Coronavirus; Prison Fever,” https://www.prison-insider.com/en/articles/afrique-coronavirus-la-fievre-des-prisons#ethiopie-5e81fe9831b0a