No detention centre mapping data


France Immigration Detention

France has one of Europe's oldest administrative immigration detention regimes, which dates back to the 1970s. Although experts laud the strong constitutional guarantees that are provided to immigration detainees, the annual number of detainees and the legal time limits for detention have increased significantly over the last 10 years. 

Quick Facts


Immigration detainees (2016): 45,937
Detained minors (2016): 4,507
Immigration detention capacity (2016): 2,054
Persons expelled (2015): 44,706
International migrants (2015): 7,784,400
New asylum applications (2016): 118,685

Profile Updated: April 2009

France Immigration Detention Profile

French immigration and asylum policies have tightened in recent years. In 2006, the French Interior Ministry instituted the controversial practice of establishing targets for deporting undocumented immigrants each year. Since then, the government has increased police raids to arrest unauthorized immigrants and introduced legislation to make it harder for immigrants to bring their families to France (Lakoff 2008; Bennhold 2007). Accordingly, in January 2009, the government announced that it had surpassed the 2008 target of 26,000 deportations by nearly four thousand cases (Connexion 2009). A similar trend toward more restrictive policies has been evident in immigration detention practices.

Detention Policy

Since 2003, there have been substantial changes to the policies governing immigration detention in France, which is regulated by the Code de l’entrée et du séjour des étrangers et du droit d’asile. The legal length of detention of irregular immigrants awaiting deportation has nearly tripled for some forms of detention, and the pressure to fill deportation quotas has led to larger numbers of people being placed in detention (Cimade 2008).

French immigrant detention centres hold undocumented immigrants subject to deportation. These include both immigrants who are awaiting final determination of their status and those who are already subject to a deportation order. Judicial processes and appeals are carried out during detention to determine whether a deportation order is to be issued, upheld, or revoked. Several different types of deportation orders can be issued, depending on the issuing authority. The vast majority (about 76 percent in 2007) of individuals confined in French immigration detention centres are subject to a deportation order, or arrête préfectoral de reconduite à la frontière, which is issued to people whose only offense is their irregular status. In contrast, the deportation order interdiction du territoire français is typically issued alongside a criminal conviction. Detainees subject to an interdiction du territoire français comprised 6.5 percent of all detainees in 2007. Additionally, asylum seekers who initially entered the Schengen zone through another country constituted about 8 percent of detainees in 2007. According to the “Dublin II” Conventions regulating asylum in the Schengen area, asylum seekers may be deported to the country through which they originally entered the Schengen area or to the country in which they have already filed an asylum claim. However, this practice is criticised by NGOs like Cimade, especially because it limits detainees ability to appeal (Cimade 2008). 

Persons held in detention may, during their confinement, submit an application for asylum in France. Upon preliminary approval of an asylum application, asylum seekers may be provided a temporary residence permit, in which case they are released from detention (Ceseda 2008). Legal asylum seekers may be housed in centres d’accueil de demandeurs d’asile (CADA), which are non-secure facilities (Direction de la Population et des Migrations 2000).

Immigration authorities provide access to non-governmental organisations to detention centres. Until recently, the French NGO Cimade was the only organisation authorised by the government to provide assistance to immigrants at these centres. In April 2009, the government announced that Cimade would no longer have exclusive access to detention sites (Nouvel Observateur 2009). In addition to assisting detainees in finding legal council and other services, Cimade assesses the conditions of detention and publishes an annual report on its observations. The 2007 annual report calls attention to problems relating to the legal rights and physical handling of detainees. Common complaints by detainees include inadequate heating and food provisions, as well as excessively long periods in detention. The Cimade report also highlights the psychological strain experienced by persons in detention and criticizes the practice of detaining children. Nearly 200 children under 10 years of age were placed in detention in 2007, including one 3 week-old infant (Cimade 2008). In 2007, the European Parliament voiced its concerns about the detention of children in family zones, stating that this form of deprivation of liberty is "particularly shocking" when imposed on children (European Parliament 2007).

Detention Infrastructure

France’s aggregate detention capacity has increased considerably since 2003 (Cimade 2008). The Global Detention Project has gathered data on some 36 detention sites in France (not including short-term holding facilities, or zones d’attentes, located at airports and other ports of entry). These detention sites operate under the authority of the Interior Ministry and are managed by territorial prefects. The total detention capacity of these sites was 1,724 in 2007 compared to 739 in 2003 (Cimade 2008).

Immigration detainees are held in two types of secure centres: locaux de rétention administrative (LRA) and centres de rétention administrative (CRA). Cimade reports that 24 CRAs and over 150 LRAs are currently operational in French territory (Cimade 2009). Detention in LRAs is legally limited to 48 hours, although Cimade reports several instances of detention in LRAs exceeding this limit (Cimade 2008). If immediate deportation is not possible, detainees are typically transferred from an LRA to a CRA (Ceseda 2008). Although the maximum length of detention in the CRAs was increased from 12 to 32 days in 2003, the average length of detention in 2007 was 10.17 days (Cimade 2008).

In addition to these detention sites, France has 85 zones d’attente in various ports of entry. The zones hold individuals who are not authorised to enter the country until they can leave France or, in the case of asylum seekers, until a preliminary hearing of their case can be arranged (Ceseda 2008). The zones are intended for very short-term detention and often lack permanent holding structures (ANAFE 2008). Typically, people are held in these facilities for only a few hours. However, there have been cases of excessively long confinement in the zones. While the legal limit of detaining persons in zones d’attente is 48 hours, this may be extended with court orders to a total of 20 days. In one case, Asebeha Gebremedhin, an Eritrean national seeking asylum in France, was held in a Paris airport for 20 days and subsequently brought an unsuccessful claim of illegal detention to the European Court of Human Rights (Gebremedhin v. France 2007, §75).

Facts & Figures

France receives the highest number of asylum seekers per annum (35,160 in 2008) in Western Europe and is third among industrialised nations after the United States and Canada. The largest numbers of asylum seekers in France in 2008 originated from Russia, Serbia, Turkey, Sri Lanka, and the Democratic Republic of Congo (UNHCR 2009).

In 2006, estimates of the number of irregular immigrants residing in France ranged from 200,000 to 400,000 (Murphy 2006). Government-set quotas for deportations have been successful in increasing their number—nearly 30,000 deportations were carried out in 2008, exceeding the target of 26,000 (Connexion 2009).

The increase in the rise of deportations has led to a concomitant rise in detention capacity, which was 1,724 in 2007, up from 739 in 2003—an increase of 133 percent. The number of persons detained per annum rose from 28,220 in 2003 to 35,008 in 2007. The legal maximum length of detention was raised from 12 days to 32 days in 2003, albeit the average length of detention in 2007 was 10.17 days (Cimade 2008).

Detained persons are primarily male, constituting 92 percent of total detainees in 2007. Whereas in 2006 nearly a third of all detainees in France were of Romanian or Bulgarian origin, in 2007 detainees were predominantly of North African origin. Algerians, Moroccans, and Tunisians constituted nearly a third of detained persons. Other major nationalities include Turkish, Chinese, and Indians (Cimade 2008).

References

Centres List

No detention centres data available

Statistics Expand all



45,937

Total number of immigration detainees by year

2016

  • Total number of immigration detainees by year
NumberObservation Date
45,9372016
47,5652015
49,5372014
45,3772013
38,2662013
43,7462012
39,9892012
51,3852011
48,5532011
60,0002010
58,2672010
50,0002009
55,5382009
32,2682008
34,3792007
30,9232006
30,7072005
25,8492004


1,258

Number of persons granted alternatives to immigration detention

2013

  • Number of persons granted alternatives to immigration detention
NumberObservation Date
1,2582013
6682012


4,507

Total number of detained minors

2016

  • Total number of detained minors
NumberObservation Date
4,5072016
5,1002015
5,6922014
3,3812013
2,6742012
5,7012011


278

Number of detained unaccompanied minors

2015

  • Number of detained unaccompanied minors
NumberObservation Date
2782015
1702014
1222013


4,822

Number of detained accompanied minors

2015

  • Number of detained accompanied minors
NumberObservation Date
4,8222015


96,375

Number of apprehensions of non-citizens

2014

  • Number of apprehensions of non-citizens
NumberObservation Date
96,3752014
48,9652013
49,7602012


0.61

Immigration detainees as a percentage of total international migrant population

2015

  • Immigration detainees as a percentage of total international migrant population
PercentageObservation Date
0.612015
0.612013
0.832010


2,054

Estimated total immigration detention capacity

2016

  • Estimated total immigration detention capacity
NumberObservation Date
2,0542016
1,7792015
1,8172013
1,6722012
1,693 - -262007
9692004
7732003


24

Number of dedicated long-term immigration detention centres

2016

  • Number of dedicated long-term immigration detention centres
NumberObservation Date
242016
252013
272013


44,706

Number of persons removed/returned (voluntary returns and deportations)

2015

  • Number of persons removed/returned (voluntary returns and deportations)
NumberObservation Date
44,7062015
43,3712014
19,5252014
44,4582013
51,8442013
20,1402013
22,7602012
56,2252012
64,2472011
20,4252011


22.4

Percentage of persons removed in relation to total number of people placed in removal procedures

2014

  • Percentage of persons removed in relation to total number of people placed in removal procedures
PercentageObservation Date
22.42014


68,432

Criminal prison population

2017

  • Criminal prison population
NumberObservation Date
68,4322017
66,8642015
68,8592014
67,0882013


21.7

Percentage of foreign prisoners

2014

  • Percentage of foreign prisoners
PercentageObservation Date
21.72014
17.52011


101

Prison population rate (per 100,000 of national population)

2017

  • Prison population rate (per 100,000 of national population)
NumberObservation Date
1012017
1032014
1012013



64,395,000

Population

2015

  • Population
NumberObservation Date
64,395,0002015
66,317,9942014
65,585,8572012


7,784,400

International migrants

2015

  • International migrants
NumberObservation Date
7,784,4002015
7,439,1002013
7,196,0002010


12.1

International migrants as a percentage of the population

2015

  • International migrants as a percentage of the population
PercentageObservation Date
12.12015
11.62013


200,000 - 400,000

Estimated number of undocumented migrants

2006

  • Estimated number of undocumented migrants
NumberObservation Date
200,000 - 400,0002006


304,507

Refugees

2016

  • Refugees
NumberObservation Date
304,5072016
273,1262015
232,4872014
217,8652012


3.93

Ratio of refugees per 1000 inhabitants

2014

  • Ratio of refugees per 1000 inhabitants
NumberObservation Date
3.932014
3.452012
3.42011


118,685

Total number of new asylum applications

2016

  • Total number of new asylum applications
NumberObservation Date
118,6852016
59,0412014
54,9402012


18

Refugee recognition rate

2014

  • Refugee recognition rate
NumberObservation Date
182014


1,370

Stateless persons

2016

  • Stateless persons
NumberObservation Date
1,3702016
1,2902015
1,2472014
1,2102012

Domestic Law Expand all

Legal tradition Show sources
NameObservation Date
Civil law

Constitutional guarantees? Show sources
NameConstitution and ArticlesYear AdoptedLast Year Amended
YesConstitution of October 4, 1958 (Constitution du 4 octobre 1958) Article 66 19581958
Core pieces of national legislation Show sources
NameYear AdoptedLast Year Amended
LOI n° 2015-925 du 29 juillet 2015 relative à la réforme du droit d'asile (1)2015
Code for the Entry and Residence of Foreigners and Asylum Seekers (Code de l’entrée et du séjour des étrangers et du droit d’asile/CESEDA) 20042013
Ministerial Decree no 2011-820 of 8 July 2011 implementing law no 2011-672 of 16 June 2011 on immigration, integration and nationality et and on removal procedures of foreigners.2011
LOI n° 2016-274 du 7 mars 2016 relative au droit des étrangers en France (1)2016
Regulations, standards, guidelines Show sources
NameYear Published
Instruction du 20 novembre 2017 relative aux objectifs et priorités en matière de lutte contre l’immigration irrégulière NOR : INT/V/17/30666/J, Ministre de l'intérieur, Gérard Collomb, https://www.gisti.org/spip.php?article57672017
Circulaire du 31 mai 2013 relative aux modalités de prise en charge des jeunes isolés étrangers : dispositif national de mise à l'abri, d’évaluation et d’orientation2013
Circulaire interministérielle du 25 janvier 2016 relative à la mobilisation des services de l’Etat auprès des conseils départementaux concernant les mineurs privés temporairement ou définitivement de la protection de leur famille et les personnes se présentant comme tels2016
Arrêté du 30 mars 2011 pris en application de l'article R. 553-1 du code de l'entrée et du séjour des étrangers et du droit d'asile2011
Circulaire du 14 juin 2010 relative à l’harmonisation des pratiques dans les centres et les locaux de rétention administrative et lors de l’exécution des escortes - NOR : IMI/M10/00105/C 2010
Arrêté du 2 mai 2006 pris en application de l'article 4 du décret n° 2005-617 du 30 mai 2005 relatif à la rétention administrative et aux zones d'attente2006

Immigration-status-related grounds Show sources
NameObservation Date
Detention to effect removal2013
Detention pending transfer to another Schengen country2013
Detention for unauthorised entry or stay2013
Detention for failing to respect a voluntary removal order2013
Detention to prevent absconding2013
Non-immigration-status-related grounds providing for administrative detention in immigration legislation. Show sources
NameObservation Date
Detention for suspicion of terrorist-related activities2013

Does the country provide specific criminal penalties for immigration-related violations? Show sources
FinesIncarcerationObservation Date
YesYes2014
Grounds for criminal immigration-related detention/incarceration and maximum potential duration of incarceration Show sources
Grounds for IncarcerationMaximum Number of Days of IncarcerationObservation Date
Unauthorized entry3652013
Declared inadmissible by another Schengen state3652013
Unauthorized re-entry10952013

Maximum length for administrative immigration detention in law. Show sources
Number of DaysObservation Date
452013
322003
121998
71981
Maximum length of time in custody prior to issuance of a detention order Show sources
Number of DaysObservation Date
52013
Average length of detention Show sources
Number of DaysObservation Date
12.72016
132014
122013
112012
9.72011
92011
102010
102009
Maximum length of detention for asylum-seekers Show sources
Number of DaysObservation Date
42013
Maximum length of detention for persons detained upon arrival at ports of entry Show sources
Number of DaysObservation Date
262013

Provision of basic procedural standards Show sources
NameIn LawIn PracticeObservation Date
Access to consular assistanceYesYes2013
Access to asylum proceduresYesYes2013
Independent review of detentionYesYes2013
Right to appeal the lawfulness of detentionYes2013
Information to detaineesYesYes2011
Right to legal counselYesYes2011
Access to free interpretation servicesYesYes2011

Types of non-custodial measures Show sources
NameIn LawIn PracticeObservation Date
Designated non-secure housingYesinfrequently2014
Supervised release and/or reportingYesNo2014
Release on bailNoNo2014
Home detention (curfew)YesYes2013
Registration (deposit of documents)YesYes2013
Electronic monitoringYesinfrequently2013
Unconditional releaseYesYes2011
Impact of alternatives Show sources
NameImpact of NatureObservation Date
Unknown"[...] other mechanisms than detention exist in French law (mostly house arrest) but these mechanisms are exceptionally used and secondary. In practice, less than 7% of the TCNs [third-country nationals] under return decision or/and removal order, are not put in detention centers [...] despite the opposite approach of the Returns Directive. Detention remains the standard measure to apply in almost all the cases (see the long list of Article L-551-1 CESEDA).22013
UnknownIn 2013, the authorities issued only 1,258 "assignations à résidence" [home detention decisions] i.e 2.9% of detention orders. French NGOs allowed into detention centres note that home detention is used not as an alternative but as a complement to "rétention" to perform the removal measures.2013

Is the detention of vulnerable persons provided in law? Are they detained in practice? Show sources
NameIn LawIn PracticeObservation Date
Accompanied minorsNo2016
Unaccompanied minorsYes2013
Persons with disabilitiesYes2013
Victims of traffickingYes2013
Stateless persons2013
Asylum seekersYes2013
Accompanied minorsYes2013
Pregnant womenYes2013
ElderlyYes2013
Accompanied minorsYes2011
ElderlyYes2011
Pregnant womenYes2011

Mandatory detention
FilterNameObservation Date
NoNo2013

Re-entry ban Show sources
NameObservation Date
Yes2013

International Law Expand all

International treaties Show sources
NameRatification Year
OP ICESCR, Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights2015
OP CRC Communications Procedure2016
CRPD, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2010
ICPED, International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance2008
OPCAT, Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment2008
CTOCSP, Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime2002
CTOCTP, Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children2002
CRC, Convention on the Rights of the Child1990
CAT, Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment1986
CEDAW, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women1983
ICCPR, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights1980
ICESCR, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights1980
ICERD, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination1971
PCRSR, Protocol to the Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees1971
VCCR, Vienna Convention on Consular Relations1970
CRSSP, Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons1960
CRSR, Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees1954
Ratio of relevant international treaties ratified
  17/19
Individual complaints procedure Show sources
NameAcceptance Year
CRPD, Optional Protocol to o the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities2010
CEDAW, Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, 19992000
CAT, declaration under article 22 of the Convention1988
ICCPR, First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 19661984
ICERD, declaration under article 14 of the Convention1982
Ratio of complaints procedures accepted Show sources
NumberObservation Date
6/7
6/8
Relevant recommendations issued by treaty bodies Show sources
NameRecommendation ExcerptRecommendation Year
Committee on the Rights of the Child§74. The Committee recommends that the State party guarantee sufficient human, technical and financial resources throughout its jurisdiction to specialist and child‑specific support, protection, legal representation, social assistance, and educational and vocational training of unaccompanied migrant children and build the capacities of law enforcement officials in this regard. It also recommends that the State party: (a) Adopt the necessary measures, including those of a legal nature, to avoid the detention of children in waiting zones through increased efforts to find suitable alternatives to deprivation of liberty and place children in appropriate accommodation, andto fully respect non-refoulement obligations; [...]2016
Committee on the Rights of the Child"§74 [..] (a) Adopt the necessary measures, including those of a legal nature, to avoid the detention of children in waiting zones through increased efforts to find suitable alternatives to deprivation of liberty and place children in appropriate accommodation, andto fully respect non-refoulement obligations; (b) Put an end to the use of bone tests as the main method to determine the age of children, using instead other methods that are proven to be more accurate.2016
Committee on Enforced DisappearanceAny person in pretrial or administrative detention should have the right to communicate with the outside world and this right should not be restricted beyond 48 hours. Repeal article l221-2 of the code on the entry and residence of aliens and the right of asylum in the version introduced by the law of 16 june 2011 as far as detention procedures in ad hoc holding areas [zones d'attente] are concerned.2013
Committee against TortureLike the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) following its visit to France, from 27 September to 9 October 2006, the Committee recommends that the State party allow sufficient time and provide all essential procedural guarantees for asylum applicants held in an administrative holding centre, without, however, unduly extending the holding period on that account; any appeal relating to an asylum application submitted at the border be subject to a hearing at which the applicant threatened with removal can present his case effectively, and that the appeal be subject to all basic procedural guarantees, including the right to an interpreter and counsel.2010
Committee on the Rights of the ChildTaking into account the Committee’s General Comment No. 6 (CRC/GC/2005/6) on the treatment of unaccompanied and separated children outside their country of origin, the Committee urges the State party to: (a) Take all necessary measures to enable the decision of placement in waiting zones to be challenged; (b) Systematically appoint an ad hoc administrator as required by its domestic law; (c) Ensure the access and availability of adequate psychological assistance to unaccompanied children and to children within the waiting zones from exploitation, in particular through strict surveillance of access to these zones.2009
Human Rights CommitteeRreview detention policy in regard to undocumented foreign nationals and asylum-seekers, including unaccompanied children; reduce overcrowding and improve living conditions in such centres, especially those in the Overseas Departments and Territories. Have no tolerance for acts of ill-treatment perpetrated by law enforcement officials against foreign nationals, including asylum-seekers, who are detained in prisons and administrative detention centres; establish adequate systems for monitoring and deterring abuses and develop further training opportunities for law enforcement officials. Undocumented foreign nationals and asylum-seekers must be properly informed and assured of their rights, including the right to apply for asylum, with access to free legal aid; ensure that all individuals subject to deportation orders have an adequate period to prepare an asylum application, with guaranteed access to translators, and a right of appeal with suspensive effect.2008

Regional treaty reservations Show sources
NameReservation Year
ECHR Article 51974
ECHR Article 61974
Regional judicial decisions on individual complaints Show sources
NameDecision DetailsObservation Date
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)R.M. and others v. France, n°33201/11, violation of Article 3 (prohibition of inhuman or degrading treatment) in respect of the child, violation of Article 5 § 1 (right to liberty and security) and 5 § 4 (right to speedy review of the lawfulness of detention) in respect of the child2016
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)A.B. and others v. France,n° 11593/12, Violation of Article 3 – in respect of the child A.B., Violation of Article 5 §§ 1 and 4 – in respect of the child A.B.2016
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)A.M. v. France, n° 56324/13, violation of Article 5(4) (right to seek a judicial review of the detention)2016
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)R.K. and others. France, n° 68264/14,Violation of Article 3 – in respect of the applicants’ child, concerning the administrative detention, Violation of Article 5 §§ 1 and 4 – in respect of the applicants’ child2016
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)R.C. et V.C. v. France, n°76491/14, Violation of Article 3 – in respect of the child V.C.2016
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)Popov v. France, 39472/07 and 39474/07, violation of Article 5(1) and 5(4) in respect of the children2012
Recommendations issued by regional human rights mechanisms Show sources
NameRecommendation ExcerptRecommendation YearObservation Date
European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT)Treatment of detainees: contemptuous behaviour of persons placed in administrative detention by surveillance staff is unacceptable and will be punished. Conditions of detention: provide appropriate heating in all detention centres; equip furniture in accommodation facilities of all detention centres with locks; staff should not openly carry telescopic truncheons; provide systematic medical examination of persons on the day of arrival in detention centres and upon being returned to detention after an abortive deportation operation due to resistance of the person to be removed; provide products for personal hygiene throughout the duration of the detention; introduce a range of purposeful activities; keep providing specialised training to police officers working in detention centres; keep a specific register for placement in isolation cells in all detention centres. 20122012
Council of Europe Commissioner for Human RightsConditions of held foreigners at the border, notably at Roissy-Charles de Gaulle Airport: the Commissioner stresses the importance of keeping families together, and particularly of refraining from detaining children, especially unaccompanied minors. The Commissioner noted that the effective exercise of such essential rights as those to consult a lawyer, to receive visits from family and friends and to submit an asylum application were highly restricted in practice.Conditions in the Mesnil-Amelot Administrative Holding Centre and the problem of annual expulsion quotas: the Commissioner invites the French authorities to stop the practice of moving persons from prisons to Holding Centres, establishing a separate administrative expulsion procedure for them. The policy of setting an annual total number of persons irregularly resident in the territory to be apprehended and expelled would seem to be creating an attitude of unnecessary, indeed inhumane, haste on the part of some of the authorities responsible for achieving these objectives.20082008

Bilateral/multilateral agreements linked to readmission Show sources
NameYear in ForceObservation Date
Argentina20022017
Belgium19642017
Benin20102017
Brazil20012017
Bulgaria19972017
Burkina Faso20112017
Cape Verde20112017
Chile19982017
Costa Rica20012017
Croatia19962017
Congo (Democratic Republic)20092017
Dominica20072017
Estonia19992017
Ecuador20002017
El Salvador19992017
Greece20042017
Gabon20082017
Guatemala19992017
Hungary19982017
Haiti20072017
Honduras20002017
Italy19992017
Latvia19982017
Lithuania20002017
Luxembourg19642017
Libya20072017
Montenegro20062017
Kosovo20112017
Morocco20012017
Mauritius20102017
Mexico19982017
Netherlands19992017
Portugal19952017
Panama19992017
Paraguay19972017
Romania20072017
Russian Federation20102017
Slovakia19972017
Slovenia19932017
Sweden19912017
Switzerland20002017
Senegal20092017
Spain20032017
Tunisia20092017
Uruguay19972017
Venezuela .20012017
Viet Nam20122017
Macedonia19992017
Germany20052017
Austria20152017
Spain19892017
Netherlands19642017
Romania19942017
Mauritius20072017
Cape Verde (EU agreement)20132013
Georgia (EU agreement)20112011
Pakistan (EU agreement)20102010
Bosnia-Herzegovina (EU agreement)20082008
Macedonia (EU agreement)20082008
Moldova (EU agreement)20082008
Montenegro (EU agreement)20082008
Serbia (EU agreement)20082008
Ukraine (EU agreement)20082008
Russia (EU agreement)20072007
Albania (EU agreement)20062006
Sri Lanka (EU agreement)20052005
Hong Kong (EU agreement)20042004
Macao (EU agreement)20042004

Visits by special procedures of the Human Rights Council Show sources
NameYear of VisitObservation Date
None2017
Relevant recommendations of the UN Universal Periodic Review Show sources
Recomendation IssuedYear IssuedObservation Date
Yes20182018
Yes20132017
Yes2008

Institutions Expand all

Federal or centralized governing system Show sources
Federal or centralized governing systemObservation Date
Centralized system2013
Centralized or decentralized immigration authority Show sources
Centralized or decentralized immigration authorityObservation Date
Centralized immigration authority2013

Custodial authority Show sources
AgencyMinistryMinistry TypologyObservation Date
M. le préfet de MayotteMinistry of the InteriorInterior or Home Affairs2015
Ministère de l'IntérieurInterior or Home Affairs2013
Ministère de l’Intérieur de l’Outre-mer et des Collectivités TerritorialesInterior or Home Affairs2008
Ministère de l’Intérieur de l’Outre-mer et des Collectivités TerritorialesInterior or Home Affairs2007
Apprehending authorities Show sources
NameAgencyMinistryObservation Date
Préfet de départementLaw enforcement, border control and national securityMinistry of Interior (Home Affairs)2013
Detention Facility Management Show sources
Entity NameEntity TypeObservation Date
Préfet de départementGovernmental2013
Police aux frontièresGovernmental2013
Interior MinistryGovernmental2013
Police qux frontièresGovernmental2013
M. le préfet de Mayotte..Ministère de l'intérieur, de la sécurité intérieure et des libertés localesGovernmental2013
M. le préfet de Mayotte. Ministère de l'intérieur, de la sécurité intérieure et des libertés localesGovernmental2013
M. le préfet de Mayotte. Ministère de l'intérieurGovernmental2013
Police aux frontières (PAF)Governmental2012
Police nationale / Police des Airs et Frontières PAFGovernmental2008
Gendarmerie nationaleGovernmental2008
Police nationale / Police des Airs et Frontières PAFGovernmental2007
Gendarmerie nationaleGovernmental2007
Police nationaleGovernmental2007
Formally designated detention estate? Show sources
Formally designated immigration detention estate?Types of officially designated detention centresObservation Date
YesDedicated immigration detention facilities2013

Authorized monitoring institutions Show sources
InstitutionInstitution TypeObservation Date
National Consultative Commission of Human Rights (Commission Nationale Consultative des Droits de l'Homme)National Human Rights Institution (or Ombudsperson) (NHRI)2016
Members of the European ParliamentInternational or Regional Bodies (IRBs)2013
Council of Europe Commissioner for Human RightsInternational or Regional Bodies (IRBs)2012
European Committee for the Prevention of TortureInternational or Regional Bodies (IRBs)2012
Members of the French parliamentParliamentary (Congressional) Organs2012
General Inspector of all Places of Deprivation of Liberty (Contrôleur général des lieux de privation de liberté)OPCAT National Preventive Mechanism (NPM)2012
Public prosecutor; judge for freedom and detention ( juge des libertés et de la détention)Judiciary organs2012
La CimadeNon-Governmental Organizations (NGO)2012
Association Service Social Familial MigrantsNon-Governmental Organizations (NGO)2012
Forum RéfugiésNon-Governmental Organizations (NGO)2012
France Terre d'AsileNon-Governmental Organizations (NGO)2012
Ordre de MalteNon-Governmental Organizations (NGO)2012
Is the national human rights institution (NHRI) recognized as independent? Show sources
Is the NHRI recognized as independent by the International Coordinating Committee of National Human Rights Institutions?Observation Date
Yes2016
Does national preventive mechanism (NPM) carry out visits? Show sources
Does NPM carry out visits in practice?Observation Date
Yes2015
Yes2013
Does NPM have capacity to receive complaints? Show sources
Does NPM have capacity to receive complaints?Observation Date
Yes2013
Does NPM publicly release reports on immigration detention? Show sources
Does NPM publicly release reports on immigration detention?Observation Date
Yes2015
Yes2013
Do NGOs carry out visits? Show sources
Do NGOs regularly carry our visits?Observation Date
Yes2012
NGO capacity to receive complaints? Show sources
NGO capacity to receive complaints?Observation Date
Yes2012
Do NGOs publish reports on immigration detention? Show sources
Do NGOs publish reports on immigration detention?Observation Date
Yes2013
Do parliamentary organs carry out visits? Show sources
Do parliamentary organs carry out visits?Observation Date
Yes2013
Do parliamentary organs publicly report on their detention findings? Show sources
Do parliamentary organs publicly report on their detention findings?Observation Date
Yes2009
Do IRBs publicly report their findings from inspections? Show sources
Do IRBs publicly report their findings from detention inspections?Observation Date
Yes2013

Estimated annual budget for detention operations Show sources
Estimated total annual budget for detention operations (in USD)Building and maintenanceSecurityStaffingFoodMedicalTransportObservation Date
37,173,800YesYesYes2018
29,531,300YesYesYes2017
49,765,200YesYesYes2016
28,794,1002015
32,520,4002009
Estimated annual budgets for particular detention-related activities Show sources
Individual detention-related activitiesEstimated annual budget (in USD)Observation Date
Building and maintenance6.283.3102018
Building and maintenance3.819.2602017
Building and maintenance2.266.9202016
Building and maintenance14,353,0002015
Medical8,807,6002015
Transport24,164,5002015
Transport47,425,6002009
Estimated cost per detainees day (in USD) Show sources
Estimated cost per detainees day (in USD)Observation Date
442009
Estimated annual budget for non-custodial measures (in USD) Show sources
Estimated annual budget for non-custodial measures (USD)Observation Date
1,129,1802015

Socio Economic Data Expand all

Gross Domestic Product per capita (in USD) Show sources
Gross Domestic Product per capita (in USD)Observation Date
42,7322014
41,4212013
39,7722012
Remittances to the country Show sources
Remittances to the country (in millions USD)Observation Date
24,7602015
16,3792011
Remittances from the country Show sources
Remittances from the country (in millions USD)Observation Date
5,2642010
Unemployment Rate Show sources
Unemployment RateObservation Date
9.92014
9.12009
Net official development assistance (ODA) (in millions USD) Show sources
Net official development assistance (ODA) (in USD)Observation Date
12,0282012
12,9972011
Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP) Show sources
Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP)UNDP four-tiered rankingObservation Date
22Very high2015
20Very high2014
20Very high2012

Pew Global Attitudes Poll on Immigration Show sources
% who agree with the statement “We should restrict and control entry of people into our country more than we do now.”Observation Date
682007
Immigration Index Score Show sources
Immigration Integration RankingObservation Date
152011
World Bank Rule of Law Index Show sources
Percentile rank among all countries (ranges from 0 (lowest) to 100 (highest) rank)Estimate of governance (ranges from approximately -2.5 (weak) to 2.5 (strong) )Observation Date
90-0.72012
90-0.82011
91-1.52010

Country Links

Government
Immigration Ministry (Le ministère de l'immigration, de l'intégration, de l'identité nationale et du développement solidaire): http://www.immigration.gouv.fr/
Office français de protection des réfugiés et apatrides (French): http://www.ofpra.gouv.fr/
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (English): http://www.diplomatie.fr
Commission de recours des réfugiés (French): http://www.commission-refugies.fr/

International Organizations
International Labour Organization: France Office: http://www.ilo.org/public/french/region/eurpro/paris/index.htm
IOM - France: http://www.iomfrance.org/
UNHCR – France: http://www.unhcr.org/fr/#_ga=1.184309862.1574793458.1466088472
UNHCR – France Country Information: http://www.refworld.org/country,COI,UNHCR,,FRA,,4562d8b62,,0.html

NGOs and Research Institutions
Amnesty International: http://www.amnesty.fr/
Association nationale d’assistance aux frontières pour les étrangers (ANAFE): http://www.anafe.org/
Association d’accueil aux médecins et personnels de santé réfugiés en France (APSRF): http://apsr.asso.fr/
Cimade: http://www.lacimade.org
Comité médical pour les exilés (COMEDE): www.comede.org
Coordination Française pour le Droit d’Asile: http://cfda.rezo.net/
Forum Réfugiés: www.forumrefugies.org
France Terre d’Asile: www.france-terre-asile.org
Groupe Accueil Solidarité (GAS): www.gas.asso.fr
Ligue des Droits de l’Homme: www.ldh-france.org
Migreurop: http://www.migreurop.org
Pastorale des Migrants: http://migrations.catholique.fr/index.php?ID=1010160

Media
Le Monde: http://www.lemonde.fr/
Liberation: http://www.liberation.fr/
Le Figaro: http://www.lefigaro.fr/
Ouest France: http://www.ouest-france.fr/
Le Point: www.lepoint.fr


Additional Resources


Submission to the Universal Periodic Review (UPR): France

France Universal Period Review – 3rd Cycle Submission to the Universal Periodic Review by the Global Detention Project (Geneva, Switzerland)   29th Session of the UPR Working Group, January-February 2018   Submitted on 29 June 2017 The Global Detention Project (GDP) is an independent research centre based in Geneva, Switzerland, that investigates the use of […]

Putting Immigration Detention in Interdisciplinary Perspective

What can we learn from the interdisciplinary study of immigration detention regimes? Michael Flynn explains in this essay for Oxford University’s “Border Criminologies” research network.

Statement to the Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries Panel on “PMSCs in places of deprivation of liberty and their impact on human rights”

Statement to the Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries Panel on “PMSCs in places of deprivation of liberty and their impact on human rights” Michael Flynn, Global Detention Project 27 April 2017   I am the Director of the Global Detention Project, a research center based in Geneva that documents the use of detention […]

Immigration Detention, the Right to Liberty, and Constitutional Law: Global Detention Project Working Paper No. 22

The right to personal liberty is one of the oldest recognized rights in liberal democracies, which raises fundamental constitutional questions about the use of detention as an immigration measure. However, as this GDP Working Paper highlights, in common law countries, lengthy immigration detention on a large scale has become the norm and is largely regarded as constitutional.

Capitalism and Immigration Control: What Political Economy Reveals about the Growth of Detention Systems: GDP Working Paper #16

Assessments of the political economy of detention point to a key challenge that is common to countries across the globe: how economic insecurities of host population’s translate into xenophobia and ethno-nationalist demands for more deportations, detentions, and walls.

Submission to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women: France

  Global Detention Project Submission to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) 64th session (4 – 22 July 2016)   The Global Detention Project (GDP) welcomes the opportunity to provide information for consideration of the combined seventh and eighth periodic report of France (CEDAW/C/FRA/7- 8) submitted to the Committee on the […]

Rethinking Pre-removal Immigration Detention in the United States: Lessons from Europe and Proposals for Reform

In this article for Refugee Survey Quarterly, Christina Fialho, a former research intern at the Global Detention Project and founder of the California-based Community Initiatives for Visiting Immigrants in Confinement (CIVIC), examines the legality of lengthy detention of non-citizens held in pre-removal immigration detention in the United States, while presenting a comparative analysis of the European Union and […]

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