Afghanistan

Not Available

Immigration detainees

Not Available

Detained children

2017

33

New asylum applications

2019

72,227

Refugees

2019

149,762

International migrants

2019

Overview

Having suffered decades of internal conflict and foreign military interventions, Afghanistan is one of the world's more important source countries for migrants and refugess, with more than five million nationals living outside the country. Because of it proximity to China and other volatile countries, relatively small numbers of people have sought refuge in Afghanistan in recent years. Among the more vulnerable groups are Uighurs from western China, an ethic minority who can face persecution in China stemming from their Islamic faith. At the behest of China, Afghanistan has deported dozens of Uighurs back to China, who are detained at the headquarters of Afghanistan's National Directorate of Security in Kabul prior to removal. 

Types of facilities used for migration-related detention
Administrative Ad Hoc Criminal Unknown

Related Reading

28 May 2020

Afghan Prisoners Prepare to be released from Pul-e-Charkhi prison in Kabul, (Rahmat Gul, AP,
Afghan Prisoners Prepare to be released from Pul-e-Charkhi prison in Kabul, (Rahmat Gul, AP, "Afghan Prison Chief Laments Conditions In Country's Jails," Gandhara, 22 April 2020, https://gandhara.rferl.org/a/afghan-prison-chief-laments-conditions-in-country-s-jails/30569489.html)

As of 28 May, Afghanistan had reported 13,036 cases of Covid-19 and 235 deaths related to the disease.

As previously reported (See the 30 April Sweden update), the Afghan Ministry for Refugees wrote an open letter on 18 March 2020 to European countries requesting that they halt all deportations to Afghanistan due to the Covid-19 threat. On 31 March, the German government announced it would cease deportations to Afghanistan for the time being with the last flight having taken place on 12 March. The request to halt deportations came at a time where IOM reported that approximately 100,000 Afghans were deported or returned voluntarily from Iran. IOM said that 53,069 undocumented Afghans returned from Iran through the Milnak and Herat borders between 8-14 March, representing a 171 percent increase. The organisation added that since 1 January, the total number of undocumented returnees from Iran is of 136,186 persons, including unaccompanied migrant children, single parent families, physically disabled persons and elders.

On 6 May, the prison authority announced that 10 prisoners tested positive for Covid-19 out of 600 tested. A prisoner detained in the Pul-e-Charkhi prison stated that three prisoners had died after contracting Covid-19. In addition, on 17 May at least 13 detainees tested positive in a prison in the province of Herat.

On 22 April, more than 5,000 prisoners were reportedly freed, mostly women, juveniles and sick prisoners, to reduce the risk of coronavirus spreading. On the same day, Afghanistan’s new prison chief, Ahmad Rashid Totakhail, complained to journalists about widespread abuses in the country’s prison system. He described problems ranging from the lack of a comprehensive database on the length of detainees’ sentences to sexual abuse of underage prisoners and a general lack of access to medical care. Subsequently, on 27 April, Afghan President Ashraf Ghani issued a decree to release over 12,000 inmates and to reform various prisons as part of measures to prevent the spread of Covid-19.


Last updated: October 2015

IMMIGRATION AND DETENTION-RELATED STATISTICS

Total number of immigration detainees by year
Not Available
Total number of detained minors
Not Available
2017
Criminal prison population
26,519
2014
Percentage of foreign prisoners
0.9
2007
Prison population rate (per 100,000 of national population)
74
2014
Population
38,900,000
2020
35,530,080
2017
32,527,000
2015
International migrants
149,762
2019
134,000
2017
382,400
2015
International migrants as a percentage of the population
0.4
2017
1.2
2015
Refugees
72,227
2019
72,231
2018
75,298
2017
59,770
2016
257,554
2015
300,423
2014
Ratio of refugees per 1000 inhabitants
1.79
2016
9.5
2014
Total number of new asylum applications
33
2019
55
2016
34
2014
Stateless persons
0
2016
0
2015
Number of immigration detainees on a given day
Top nationalities of detainees
Number of persons granted alternatives to immigration detention
Number of detained asylum seekers
Number of detained unaccompanied minors
Number of detained accompanied minors
Number of detained stateless persons
Number of apprehensions of non-citizens
Immigration detainees as a percentage of total international migrant population
Estimated total immigration detention capacity
Number of dedicated long-term immigration detention centres
Estimated capacity of dedicated long-term immigration detention centres
Number of dedicated medium-term immigration detention centres
Number of immigration offices
Number of transit facilities
Number of criminal facilities
Number of ad hoc facilities
Number of persons removed/returned (voluntary returns and deportations)
Number of deportations/forced returns only
Percentage of persons removed in relation to total number of people placed in removal procedures
Estimated number of undocumented migrants
Refugee recognition rate

SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDICATORS

Gross Domestic Product per capita (in USD)
585.85
2017
633
2014
Remittances to the country
378,240,420
2017
636,200
2015
Remittances from the country
86,359,034
2017
Unemployment Rate
2017
2014
Net official development assistance (ODA) (in millions USD)
4,064,330,000
2016
4,823,300
2014
Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP)
168 (Low)
2017
171 (Low)
2015
World Bank Rule of Law Index
5 (-1.6)
2017
Unemployment rate amongst migrants
Detention for deterrence
Pew Global Attitudes Poll on Immigration
Immigration Index Score
Domestic Opinion Polls on Immigration

DOMESTIC LAWS AND POLICIES

Legal tradition
Muslim law
2017
Is the detention of vulnerable persons provided in law? Are they detained in practice?
Women (Not mentioned) Yes
2015
Unaccompanied minors (Not mentioned) Yes
2015
Accompanied minors (Not mentioned) Yes
2015
Constitutional guarantees?
Core pieces of national legislation
Additional legislation
Regulations, standards, guidelines
Immigration-status-related grounds
Non-immigration-status-related grounds providing for administrative detention in immigration legislation.
Does the country provide specific criminal penalties for immigration-related violations?
Grounds for criminal immigration-related detention/incarceration and maximum potential duration of incarceration
Has the country decriminalized immigration-related violations?
Maximum length for administrative immigration detention in law.
Longest recorded instance of immigration detention.
Maximum length of time in custody prior to issuance of a detention order
Average length of detention
Maximum length of detention for asylum-seekers
Maximum length of detention for persons detained upon arrival at ports of entry
Provision of basic procedural standards
Types of non-custodial measures
Impact of alternatives
Mandatory detention
Expedited/fast track removal
Re-entry ban

INTERNATIONAL LAW

Individual complaints procedure
Acceptance Year
CRPD, Optional Protocol to o the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2012
2012
Ratio of complaints procedures accepted
Observation Date
1/7
2017
Treaty bodies decisions on individual complaints
Observation Date
2016
Recommendations issued by regional human rights mechanisms
Recommendation Year
Observation Date
2016
2016
2016
Visits by special procedures of the Human Rights Council
Year of Visit
Observation Date
None 0
0
2016
Relevant recommendations by UN Special Procedures
Recommendation Year
Observation Date
None
Relevant recommendations of the UN Universal Periodic Review
Observation Date
No 2014
2017
No 2009
2017
None 0
Ratio of relevant international treaties ratified
International treaty reservations
Relevant recommendations issued by treaty bodies
Regional legal instruments
Regional treaty reservations
Regional judicial decisions on individual complaints
Bilateral/multilateral agreements linked to readmission

INSTITUTIONAL INDICATORS

Custodial authority
National Directorate of Security (National Directorate of Security) Internal or Public Security
2015
Apprehending authorities
National Directorate of Security ()
2015
Detention Facility Management
National Directorate of Security (Governmental)
2015
Types of detention facilities used in practice
()
2016
()
2015
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
Does NPM have capacity to receive complaints?
Yes
2013
Does NPM publicly release reports on immigration detention?
2013
NGO capacity to receive complaints?
No
2013
Do NGOs publish reports on immigration detention?
Yes
2013
Do parliamentary organs carry out visits?
Yes
2000
Do parliamentary organs have capacity to receive complaints?
Yes
2013
Do parliamentary organs publicly report on their detention findings?
Yes
2013
Do internal inspection agencies (IIAs) carry out visits?
Yes
2013
Do IIAs have capacity to receive complaints?
Yes
2004
Do IIAs publicly report their findings from detention inspections?
Yes
2010
Do international and/or regional bodies (IRBs) visit immigration-related detention facilities?
Yes
2007
Do IRBs publicly report their findings from inspections?
Yes
2008
Federal or centralized governing system
Centralized or decentralized immigration authority
Formally designated detention estate?
Authorized monitoring institutions
Is the national human rights institution (NHRI) recognized as independent?
Does NHRI carry out visits?
Does NHRI have capacity to receive complaints?
Does NHRI publicly release reports on immigration detention?
Does national preventive mechanism (NPM) carry out visits?
Do NGOs carry out visits?
Types of privatisation/outsourcing
Detention contractors and other non-state entities
Estimated annual budget for detention operations
Estimated annual budgets for particular detention-related activities
Estimated cost per detainees day (in USD)
Estimated annual budget for non-custodial measures (in USD)
Estimated costs of non-custodial measures (in USD)
Does the country receive external sources of funding?
Description of foreign assistance