No detention centre mapping data


Hong Kong (China) Immigration Detention

Immigration detention policies in Hong Kong have been driven by concerns over migration flows from mainland China and neighbouring countries in Southeast Asia, in particular Vietnam. For many years, Hong Kong was the “first port of refuge” for refugees fleeing Vietnam, even though most arriving Vietnamese “boat people” were held in deplorable conditions in secure detention camps. Since China resumed sovereignty over it, Hong Kong has ended its practice of accepting Vietnamese migrants and vigorously defended its policy of refusing all asylum seekers, who are generally treated as unauthorized immigrants.

Quick Facts


Immigration detainees (2013): 24,679
Persons expelled (2010): 10,110
International migrants (2013): 2,804,800

Profile Updated: June 2009

Hong Kong (China) Immigration Detention Profile

Immigration and detention policies in Hong Kong have been driven in part by concerns over migration flows from mainland China and neighbouring countries in Southeast Asia, in particular Vietnam. For many years, Hong Kong (officially, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China) was the “first port of refuge” for refugees fleeing Vietnam, even though most arriving Vietnamese “boat people” were held in deplorable conditions in secure detention camps (Ripley 1989; Refugee Action 1986). Since China resumed sovereignty over it, Hong Kong has ended its practice of accepting Vietnamese migrants and vigorously defended its policy of refusing all asylum seekers, who are generally treated as unauthorized immigrants (HKHRM 2008; Minghua 2001).

Detention Policy

Since unification with China in 1997, Hong Kong has been governed by the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The Basic Law establishes the “One Country, Two Systems” framework, according to which Hong Kong retains a degree of autonomy in setting domestic policy, including on immigration issues. China is party to the 1951 Refugee Convention, but the rights and duties set out in this convention have not been extended to Hong Kong (CAT 2009).

Many immigration offenses, which are established in the Immigration Ordinance, are heavily penalized, including unauthorized presence in Hong Kong. Offenses include:

  • “Overstaying” an entry permit, which is grounds for expulsion from Hong Kong and can lead to criminal prosecution (CLIC website; Chan 2009); 
  • “Breaches of conditions of stay,” such as working without appropriate permission, which according to Section 41 of the Immigration Ordinance is considered “an offence” and makes a person “liable on conviction to a fine … and to imprisonment for 2 years”;
  • Presenting false information or forged travel documents, which Section 42 of the ordinance states makes a person, “on conviction on indictment, [liable] to a fine of $150,000 and to imprisonment for 14 years.”

The Immigration Ordinance authorizes specific officials within the Hong Kong Security Bureau—including officers of the Immigration Service and ranking members of the police force—to order the detention of people for a number of immigration-related reasons, including:

  • “Detention for inquiry”: Immigrants suspected of having violated the ordinance can be detained for investigation for an initial period of 48 hours, which can be extended for 5 additional days (Section 26).
  • “Detention pending examination and decision as to landing”: People suspected of having arrived in Hong Kong without appropriate authorization can be held “for not more than 24 hours pending the examination; and … for not more than a further 24 hours pending a decision to give or refuse him permission to land” (Section 27).
  • “Detention for inquiry as to deportation”: The Secretary for Security can issue a detention warrant to hold a foreigner for up to 14 days if there are reasonable grounds for suspecting that the person is deportable because he/she has been found guilty in Hong Kong of an offence punishable with imprisonment for not less than 2 years and/or the governor deems it to be conducive to the public good. Under certain conditions, this period of detention can be extended to a maximum of 28 days (Section 29 and 20).
  • “Detention pending removal or deportation”: This category of detention covers a number of different scenarios, but generally authorizes the detention of non-residents who have been issued a deportation or removal order. In most instances, there is no specified limit on the length of detention (Section 32).

The Immigration Ordinance authorizes the secretary for security to “designate any place as a detention centre for the detention of persons” who are awaiting a decision on permission to stay in Hong Kong or who have been ordered removed (Section 13H). Detention centres “shall be under the control and management of an officer appointed by the Secretary for Security and the officer appointed shall be: (a) the Commissioner of Correctional Services; (b) the Commissioner of Police; or (c) the Chief Staff Officer, Civil Aid Service” (Section 13H).

The Hong Kong government maintains a “firm policy not to grant asylum” (HKHRM 2008, pg 16). According to the Hong Kong Human Rights Monitor, “There is no law or policy in Hong Kong offering protected status for refugees or asylum seekers. Neither the Immigration Ordinance (Cap.115) nor immigration guidelines provide for any different treatment for asylum seekers or refugees from other persons seeking entry to Hong Kong. The Government does not have a [refugee determination procedure] but instead relies on the UNHCR’s Hong Kong sub-office to process asylum applications. The UNHCR communicates its decision on the status of the asylum seeker to the Director of Immigration, who has unfettered discretion to decide whether or not to abide by the decision or choose to ignore it in making its immigration decision" (HKHRM 2008, pg 17).

Because asylum seekers are generally treated as unauthorized immigrants in Hong Kong, they are vulnerable to detention and deportation. According to the Hong Kong Human Rights Commission, asylum seekers “are denied access to health care, education, welfare, and housing, and are furthermore subject to detention. … If they approach the Immigration Department to extend visas or get recognizance they are often rejected and will be asked to leave Hong Kong” (HKHRC et al 2007).

Unauthorized minors are also subject to detention. According to Hong Kong Regulations, “A person, who in the opinion of an immigration officer is under the age of 18 years, may be detained in any place set out in Schedule 2 [which designates the Tuen Mun Children and Juvenile Home] and shall receive the same treatment as that which is accorded to a child or juvenile detained in a place of refuge” (Hong Kong Regulations, Chapter 115 B, Section 4, “Treatment of children and juveniles”).

The Immigration Ordinance contains several sections that deal specifically with the treatment of “residents or former residents of Vietnam.” Beginning on 2 July 1982, any person (including children) from Vietnam who arrives without proper authorization is to be detained “pending a decision to grant or refuse him permission to remain in Hong Kong or, after a decision to refuse him such permission, pending his removal from Hong Kong” (Section 13D). This policy, which was established in the Immigration (Amendment) Bill 1982, led to the establishment of the first secure detention camps for asylum seekers in Hong Kong (Cheung 1982).

While the Refugee Convention has not been extended to Hong Kong, there are procedures in place for assessing torture claims made under the Convention against Torture (for a discussion of the convention’s application in Hong Kong, see A’ et al and Director of Immigration 2008a, §1-5; HKHRM 2008). Despite serious criticism of these procedures (see, for example, HKHRM 2008, pp 18-19), they have led to positive outcomes for claimants in Hong Kong courts. In July 2008, a Hong Kong Court of Appeals ruled that the government had unlawfully detained four non-residents who had filed torture claims under the convention. The court found that while the powers to detain under Section 32 of the Immigration Ordinance pending verification of a torture claim were lawful under domestic law, they nonetheless violated article 5(1) of the Hong Kong Bill of Rights, which requires that detention must not be arbitrary and the grounds and procedure for detention must be certain and accessible. The court found that there was no published policy describing the circumstances under which the government could exercise its power to detain pending verification of the torture claims (“A” et al and Director of Immigration 2009, §3).

In March 2009, a Hong Kong court ruled that the government had to pay monetary damages to the four non-residents who had filed torture claims (A” et al and Director of Immigration 2009). According to one source interviewed by the Global Detention Project, while the long-term impact of the rulings remains unclear, shortly after the 2009 ruling several dozen immigrants were released from detention (Chan 2009).

Detention Infrastructure

Hong Kong has a sprawling immigration detention complex that encompasses several dozen current and former detention camps, prisons, and other holding facilities (see the complete List of Detention Sites). Overall numbers of detainees, however, have gone down significantly since Hong Kong officially ended its policy of accepting Vietnamese migrants in the late 1990s. On 18 July 2008, the government reported that 387 persons were in immigration detention (“A” et al and Director of Immigration, 2008b, §3). This compares to the single-day total of 23,203  “illegal Vietnamese immigrants” held in detention camps as of 1 April 1993 (House of Lords 1993).

The Immigration Ordinance authorizes the secretary for security to “designate any place as a detention centre for the detention of persons” who are awaiting a decision on permission to stay in Hong Kong or who have been ordered removed (Section 13H). Detention centres “shall be under the control and management of an officer appointed by the Secretary for Security and the officer appointed shall be: (a) the Commissioner of Correctional Services; (b) the Commissioner of Police; or (c) the Chief Staff Officer, Civil Aid Service” (Section 13H).

According to Hong Kong Regulations (Chapter 115B, Schedule 3), there were 20 facilities in use as of mid-2009. However, the Global Detention Project (GDP) has found evidence that many of these facilities are either closed or used for purposes other than immigration detention, including: the Victoria Road Centre (aka “The Zoo”), a notorious prison once used to hold political detainees during the 1960s and 1970s but which the Hong Kong government apparently now rents out, including to film producers (South China Morning Post 2006); the British Military Hospital in Kowloon, which was closed down in the mid-1990s during the lead up to the handover of Hong Kong to China (Lee 1995); the Whitehead Detention Centre, an infamous detention camp for Vietnamese boat people, which was closed in the late 1990s and turned into a golf course (Chen Min 2005); and the New Horizons Vietnamese Refugee Departure Centre, the Kai Tak Vietnamese Migrant Transit Centre, and the High Island Detention Centre, which were closed in the late 1990s to consolidate the location of remaining Vietnamese migrants in Hong Kong (USCR 1999).

In addition, many of the detention sites listed in the regulations are “detention quarters” or “rooms” located at ports of entry - including land borders with mainland China, ferry terminals, and the Hong Kong Airport - most of which appear to be used only as short-term holding facilities (Hong Kong RegulationsChapter 115B, Schedule 3; Chung 2009). Except for the airport, which according to one source often holds people for several days, the Global Detention Project has been unable to confirm if these sites confine people for more than a few hours (Chung 2009).

As of June 2009, the GDP was able to confirm the “in use” status of 12 detention facilities (see Map of “In Use” Detention Sites). These facilities include prisons, custodial wards in hospitals, dedicated migrant detention centres, the airport detention quarters, and one juvenile detention centre. Some of the sites, like the Green Island Reception Centre, are apparently only standby facilities to be used in cases of massive influx of migrants (Chung 2009).

All facilities are under the authority of the Security Bureau except the Tuen Mun Children and Juvenile Home, which is part of the Labour and Welfare Bureau’s Social Welfare Department’s residential treatment service for children, juveniles, and young offenders (Social Welfare Department 2009). The other 11 sites are run by the Correctional Services Department or the Immigration Department, both of which are part of the Security Bureau. (For more information about “in use” and “closed” detention sites, see the complete List of Detention Sites).

Facts & Figures

According to government statistics, in 2007, more than 5,000 people were arrested on charges related to “illegal immigration”—3,007 immigrants from mainland China, and 2,041 “Vietnamese illegal immigrants and other non-ethnic Chinese illegal immigrants” (Hong Kong Government 2007, p. 302). However, the Immigration Department reports that during fiscal year 2007-2008, it “detained” 12,374 people and “arrested” 11,937 (Immigration Department 2008). In addition, during this period the department “prosecuted” 11,316 people, “repatriated” 13,404, “removed” 451, and “deported” 727 (Immigration Department 2008).

On 18 July 2008, the government reported that 387 persons were in immigration detention, 139 of whom were torture claimants (“A” et al and Director of Immigration, 2008b, §3). This compares to the single-day total of 23,203  “illegal Vietnamese immigrants” held in detention camps as of 1 April 1993 (House of Lords 1993).

As of mid-2009, Hong Kong Regulations (Chapter 115B, Schedule 3) listed 20 immigration detention sites. The Global Detention Project was able to confirm that 12 sites qualified as “In use” sites (see the complete List of Detention Sites).

At the end of 2007 there were 94 asylum seekers with pending cases residing in Hong Kong (UNHCR 2008). During fiscal year 2007-2008, there were 2,783 “illegal immigrants from the Mainland” in Hong Kong, down from 23,132 in 1996-1997 (Immigration Department  2008).

References

  • “A” et al v. Director of Immigration. 2009. Judgment of 3 March 2009. The High Court of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Action File 114/2009.http://legalref.judiciary.gov.hk/lrs/common/search/search_result_detail_frame.jsp?DIS=64626&QS=({HCAL100%2F2006}|{HCAL000100%2F2006}+%25caseno)&TP=JU (accessed 11 June 2009).
  • “A” et al v. Director of Immigration. 2008a. Judgment of 18 July 2008. The High Court of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Civil Appeal File 253/2008. http://legalref.judiciary.gov.hk/lrs/common/ju/ju_frame.jsp?DIS=61742 (accessed 11 June 2009).
  • “A” et al v. Director of Immigration. 2008b. Further Judgment of 18 July 2008. The High Court of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Civil Appeal File 300/2008.http://legalref.judiciary.gov.hk/lrs/common/search/search_result_detail_frame.jsp?DIS=62332&QS=%28%7BCACV314%2F2007%7D%7C%7BCACV000314%2F2007%7D+%25caseno%29&TP=JU (accessed 11 June 2009).
  • Committee against Torture (CAT). 2009. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 19 of the Convention: Concluding observations of the Committee against Torture: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. CAT/C/HKG/CO/4. 19 January 2009.  
  • Chan, Kit (Asian Human Rights Commission). 2009. Interview with Michael Flynn (Global Detention Project). Geneva, Switzerland. 3 June 2009.
  • Cheung, Donald. 1982. "Exco 'Yes' to closed camps." South China Morning Post. 16 June 1982.
  • Chen Min, Michelle. 2005. "Range of attractions on the rise; Facilities now target schools to nurture a local Tiger Woods." South China Morning Post. 30 December 2005.
  • Chung, Kwok Hiu (Hong Kong Human Rights Monitor). 2009. Email correspondence with Michael Flynn (Global Detention Project). Geneva, Switzerland. 11 June 2009.
  • Community Legal Information Centre (CLIC). Website. “Immigration Offenses.” Page copyrighted 2007. http://www.hkclic.org/en/topics/immigration/immigration_offences/index.shtml(accessed 5 June 2009).
  • Department of Justice (Hong Kong). “Ordinances of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) of the People's Republic of China.” Available on the website of the Hong Kong Legal Information Institute. Page last updated 14 May 2009. http://www.hklii.org/ (accessed 10 June 2009).
  • Department of Justice (Hong Kong). “Regulations of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) of the People's Republic of China.” Available on the website of the Hong Kong Legal Information Institute. Page last updated 14 May 2009. http://www.hklii.org/ (accessed 10 June 2009).
  • Hong Kong Correctional Services. Website. "Individual Institutions." Page last updated 12 June 2009.http://www.csd.gov.hk/english/ins/ins_ind/ins_ind.html (accessed 15 June 2009).
  • Hong Kong Correctional Services. Website. "Castle Peak Bay Immigration Centre." Page last updated 10 December 2007.http://www.csd.gov.hk/english/ins/ins_ind/ins_nt_cic.html (accessed 5 May 2009).
  • Hong Kong Correctional Services. Website. "Lai Chi Kok Correctional Institution." Page last updated 14 Feb 2008.http://www.csd.gov.hk/english/ins/ins_ind/ins_kln_lci.html (accessed 28 May 2009).
  • Hong Kong Correctional Services. Website. "Population in Penal Institutions: Population in Penal Institutions (as at 31 March 2009)." Hong Kong Correctional Services.http://www.csd.gov.hk/textonly/english/ins/ins_stat/ins_stat.html (accessed 20 May 2009).
  • Hong Kong Correctional Services. Website. "Lai Chi Kok Reception Centre." Page last updated 22 Dec 2008.http://www.csd.gov.hk/english/ins/ins_ind/ins_kln_lckrc.html (accessed 28 May 2009).
  • Hong Kong Government. Hong Kong Yearbook 2007. Information services department, Civil Service Bureau, HKSAR Government. Document code: F30010800E0 http://www.yearbook.gov.hk/ (accessed 20 May 2009).
  • Hong Kong Human Rights Commission (HKHRC). 2008. Degrading strip search procedures by law enforcement agencies: Report to the United Nations Committee Against Torture on the Second Report by Hong Kong Special Administrative Region under Article 19 of the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Hong Kong Human Rights Commission. September 2008.http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr08-09/english/panels/se/papers/se1027cb2-129-12-e.pdf (accessed 20 May 2009).
  • Hong Kong Human Rights Commission (HKHRC ), Society for Community Organization & Asylum Seekers’ and Refugees’ Voice. 2007. UNHCR-HK and Hong Kong Government violate asylum seekers’ rights: Urgent Appeal to United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. HKHRC. 14 September 2007.
  • Hong Kong Human Rights Monitor (HKHRM). 2008. Shadow Report for the United Nations Committee against Torture on the implementation of the Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the People's Republic of China. HKHRM. Hong Kong. 18 April 2008.
  • House of Lords. 1993. “Hong Kong Detention Camps.” House of Lords Debate, 6 May 1993, vol. 545 cc798-800. Available at the website of the Hansard Official Report of Debates in the UK Parliament,http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/lords/1993/may/06/hong-kong-detention-camps (accessed 19 June 2009).

  • Immigration Department (Hong Kong). 2008. Immigration Department Annual Report (2007-2008). http://www.immd.gov.hk/a_report_07-08/index.htm(accessed 19 June 2009).

  • Immigration Department (Hong Kong). “Ma Tau Kok Detention Centre” in Annual Report 2007-2008. http://www.immd.gov.hk/a_report_07-08/eng/chapter04/index.htm#b2h (accessed 12 May 2009).

  • Lee, Naomi. 1995. "Garrison Hospital's Bones Fit to Be Picked." The Standard. 19 August 1995.http://www.thestandard.com.hk/archive_news_detail.asp?pp_cat=&art_id=37961&sid=&con_type=1&archive_d_str=19950819(accessed 20 May 2009).
  • Minghua, Du. 2001. “HK SAR Government: No Asylum for Anyone.” People’s Daily. 23 November 2001.
  • Refugee Action. 1986. Refugees from Vietnam in Hong Kong. Refugee Action. Derby, United Kingdom. March 1986.
  • Ripley, Simon. 1989. “No Escaping Persecution.” The Times (London). 2 March 1989.
  • Social Welfare Department. Website. "Correctional / Residential Home Tuen Mun Children and Juvenile Home." Page last updated 15 May 2009.http://www.swd.gov.hk/en/textonly/site_pubsvc/page_offdr/sub_crhomes/(accessed 10 June 2009).
  • South China Morning Post. 2006. "Call to save 'zoo' where rioters were caged." South China Morning Post. 14 May 2006.
  • Telephone Directory of the Government of the HKSAR and Related Organizations. Website. "Correctional Services Department: Operations Division: Castle Peak Bay Immigration Centre." Page last updated 28 May 2009. http://gb.hyd.gov.hk/gb/tel.directory.gov.hk/0208008928_ENG.html(accessed 29 May 2009).
  • Telephone Directory of the Government of the HKSAR and Related Organizations. Website. "Department of Health Regulatory Affairs and Health Services Clinic (Correctional Institutions) Green Island Reception Centre." Page last updated 27 May 2009.http://gb.hyd.gov.hk/gb/tel.directory.gov.hk/0258000299_ENG.html(accessed 29 May 2009).
  • Telephone Directory of the Government of the HKSAR and Related Organizations. Website. "Immigration Department: Enforcement and Torture Claim Assessment Branch: Enforcement Division: Removal Sub-division: Deportation Section." Page last updated 28 May 2009.http://gb.hyd.gov.hk/gb/tel.directory.gov.hk/0269000077_ENG.html(accessed 29 May 2009).
  • Telephone Directory of the Government of the HKSAR and Related Organizations. Website. "Social Welfare Department Headquarters: Youth and Corrections Branch: Tuen Mun Children and Juvenile Home." Page last updated 28 May 2009.http://gb.hyd.gov.hk/gb/tel.directory.gov.hk/0273007193_ENG.html(accessed 29 May 2009).
  • U.S. Committee for Refugees (USCR). 1999. World Refugee Survey 1999. USCR. 1 January 1999.
  • Wu, C., and C. Inglis. 1992. “Illegal Immigration to Hong Kong.” Asian and Pacific Migration Journal. 1992;1(3-4):601-21.

Centres List

No detention centres data available

Statistics Expand all



24,679

Total number of immigration detainees by year

2013

  • Total number of immigration detainees by year
NumberObservation Date
24,6792013
37,1052013
23,9222012
29,7922012
21,5232011
23,8762011
28,5642010
31,4452009


2

Number of dedicated long-term immigration detention centres

2014

  • Number of dedicated long-term immigration detention centres
NumberObservation Date
22014


571

Estimated capacity of dedicated long-term immigration detention centres

2013

  • Estimated capacity of dedicated long-term immigration detention centres
NumberObservation Date
5712013


7

Number of transit facilities

2014

  • Number of transit facilities
NumberObservation Date
72014


10,110

Number of persons removed/returned (voluntary returns and deportations)

2010

  • Number of persons removed/returned (voluntary returns and deportations)
NumberObservation Date
10,1102010


8,457

Criminal prison population

2016

  • Criminal prison population
NumberObservation Date
8,4572016


29.9

Percentage of foreign prisoners

2016

  • Percentage of foreign prisoners
PercentageObservation Date
29.92016


115

Prison population rate (per 100,000 of national population)

2016

  • Prison population rate (per 100,000 of national population)
NumberObservation Date
1152016



7,050,000

Population

2010

  • Population
NumberObservation Date
7,050,0002010


2,804,800

International migrants

2013

  • International migrants
NumberObservation Date
2,804,8002013


38.9

International migrants as a percentage of the population

2013

  • International migrants as a percentage of the population
PercentageObservation Date
38.92013


86

Refugees

2016

  • Refugees
NumberObservation Date
862016
1332015
1702014


0.02

Ratio of refugees per 1000 inhabitants

2012

  • Ratio of refugees per 1000 inhabitants
NumberObservation Date
0.022012


0

Total number of new asylum applications

2016

  • Total number of new asylum applications
NumberObservation Date
02016
1,2312012


0

Stateless persons

2016

  • Stateless persons
NumberObservation Date
02016
12014

Domestic Law Expand all

Legal tradition Show sources
NameObservation Date
Common law
Customary law

Core pieces of national legislation Show sources
NameYear AdoptedLast Year Amended
Immigration Ordinance. Cap. 115.19722015
Hong Kong Bill Of Rights Ordinance, Art. 5 Liberty and security of person and Art. 6 Rights of persons deprived of their liberty 19911998
Additional legislation Show sources
NameYear AdoptedLast Year Amended
Consular Relations Ordinance. Cap 557.20002015
Immigration Service Ordinance. Cap 331.19612014
Regulations, standards, guidelines Show sources
NameYear Published
IMMIGRATION (TREATMENT OF DETAINEES) ORDER. Cap. 115E. As amended.1980
Immigration (Places of Detention) Order. Cap. 115B. As amended (2010).1975

Immigration-status-related grounds Show sources
NameObservation Date
Detention to establish/verify identity and nationality2015
Detention to prevent absconding2015
Detention to effect removal2015
Detention to prevent unauthorised entry at the border2015
Detention of unauthorised persons by executive discretion2015
Detention for unauthorised entry or stay2015
Detention for failing to respect non-custodial measures2015
Non-immigration-status-related grounds providing for administrative detention in immigration legislation. Show sources
NameObservation Date
Detention on public order, threats or security grounds2015

Does the country provide specific criminal penalties for immigration-related violations? Show sources
FinesIncarcerationObservation Date
YesYes2014
Grounds for criminal immigration-related detention/incarceration and maximum potential duration of incarceration Show sources
Grounds for IncarcerationMaximum Number of Days of IncarcerationObservation Date
Unauthorised stay10952015
Unauthorized entry10952015

Maximum length of time in custody prior to issuance of a detention order Show sources
Number of DaysObservation Date
72015
Maximum length of detention for asylum-seekers Show sources
Number of DaysObservation Date
No Limit2015

Provision of basic procedural standards Show sources
NameIn LawIn PracticeObservation Date
Access to consular assistanceYesYes2015
Right to legal counselYes2014
Information to detaineesNoYes2014
Independent review of detentionNo2014
Right to appeal the lawfulness of detentionNo2014
Access to asylum proceduresNo2014
Complaints mechanism regarding detention conditionsNo2014
Access to free interpretation servicesYes2014

Types of non-custodial measures Show sources
NameIn LawIn PracticeObservation Date
ReleaseYesinfrequently2015
Supervised release and/or reportingYesinfrequently2014
Release on bailYesinfrequently2014

Is the detention of vulnerable persons provided in law? Are they detained in practice? Show sources
NameIn LawIn PracticeObservation Date
Persons with disabilitiesNot mentioned2015
Unaccompanied minorsProvidedYes2014
Survivors of tortureProvided2014
ElderlyNot mentioned2009
Pregnant womenNot mentioned2009

International Law Expand all

International treaties Show sources
NameRatification Year
CRPD, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2008
CAT, Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment1997
CEDAW, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women1997
CRC, Convention on the Rights of the Child1997
CRSSP, Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons1997
ICCPR, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights1997
ICERD, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination1997
ICESCR, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights1997
VCCR, Vienna Convention on Consular Relations1997
Ratio of relevant international treaties ratified
  9/19
International treaty reservations Show sources
NameReservation YearObservation Date
CRC Article 3719971997
Ratio of complaints procedures accepted Show sources
NumberObservation Date
0
0
Relevant recommendations issued by treaty bodies Show sources
NameRecommendation ExcerptRecommendation Year
Committee on the Rights of the Child"82. The Committee notes as positive the decision of Hong Kong, China to grant asylum-seeking and refugee children access to the national public school system. However, it is concerned about the lack of special care and protection for asylum-seeking children upon their arrival and the administrative practice of detaining such children, as well as unaccompanied children arriving in Hong Kong, China by air and children who are refused entry, in juvenile detention facilities.[...] 84. The Committee recommends that Hong Kong, China: (a) Cease the administrative practice of detaining asylum-seeking and refugee children;"2013

Bilateral/multilateral agreements linked to readmission Show sources
NameYear in ForceObservation Date
EU20042017

Institutions Expand all

Federal or centralized governing system Show sources
Federal or centralized governing systemObservation Date
Centralized system2014
Centralized or decentralized immigration authority Show sources
Centralized or decentralized immigration authorityObservation Date
Centralized immigration authority2015

Custodial authority Show sources
AgencyMinistryMinistry TypologyObservation Date
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security2014
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security2014
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security2013
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security2011
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security2009
Correctional ServicesSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security2009
Social Welfare DepartmentLabour and Welfare BureauLabour2009
Social Welfare DepartmentLabour and Welfare BureauLabour2006
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security2004
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Immigration DepartmentSecurity BureauInternal or Public Security
Apprehending authorities Show sources
NameAgencyMinistryObservation Date
Immigration or police officer2014
Detention Facility Management Show sources
Entity NameEntity TypeObservation Date
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental2014
Social Welfare DepartmentGovernmental2014
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental2013
Immigration Department. Security Bureau.Governmental2013
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental2011
immigration Department. Security Bureau.Governmental2011
Correctional ServicesGovernmental2009
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental2009
Labour and Welfare Bureau / Social Welfare DepartmentGovernmental2009
Labour and Welfare Bureau / Social Welfare DepartmentGovernmental2006
Correctional ServicesGovernmental2004
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Immigration DepartmentGovernmental
Types of detention facilities used in practice Show sources
Immigration detention centre (Administrative)Immigration field office (Administrative)Transit centre (Administrative)Reception centre (Administrative)Offshore detention centre (Administrative)Hospital (Administrative)Border guard (Administrative)Police station (Criminal)National penitentiary (Criminal)Local prison (Criminal)Juvenile detention centre (Criminal)Informal camp (Ad hoc)Immigration detention centre (Ad hoc)Surge facility (Ad hoc)Observation Date
YesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes2014

Authorized monitoring institutions Show sources
InstitutionInstitution TypeObservation Date
Justices of the PeaceJudiciary organs2015

Socio Economic Data Expand all

Gross Domestic Product per capita (in USD) Show sources
Gross Domestic Product per capita (in USD)Observation Date
38,1242013
Remittances to the country Show sources
Remittances to the country (in millions USD)Observation Date
3562011
Remittances from the country Show sources
Remittances from the country (in millions USD)Observation Date
4832010
Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP) Show sources
Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP)UNDP four-tiered rankingObservation Date
129Medium2014

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