Russian Federation

42,740

Immigration detainees

2015

Not Available

Detained children

2017

8,094

New asylum applications

2019

42,413

Refugees

2019

11,640,559

International migrants

2019

Overview

(February 2021) The Russian Federation has one of the largest networks of migrant detention centres in the world, including more than two dozen as of 2020. Observers have criticised conditions at these centres, called Specialised Institutions for the Temporary Detention of Foreign Citizens. Detainees have complained of being physically abused by staff at some centres, and there are reports of poor sanitary conditions, as well as a lack of food and medical personnel. Stateless persons, pregnant women, unaccompanied children, and other vulnerable individuals have been detained at these centres.

Types of facilities used for migration-related detention
Administrative Ad Hoc Criminal Unknown

22 February 2021

28 Pro Navalny Protestors Held in a Cell Meant for 8 People in Sakhrovo Detention Centre, (Protestny MGU,
28 Pro Navalny Protestors Held in a Cell Meant for 8 People in Sakhrovo Detention Centre, (Protestny MGU, "Nothing Special About It: Take a Look Inside the ‘Special’ Detention Center Where Arrested Pro-Navalny Protesters are Being Held," Meduza, 4 February 2021, https://meduza.io/en/feature/2021/02/04/nothing-special-about-it)

In December 2020, the Russian government issued a presidential decree extending several COVID-19-related measures affecting foreigners in the country. Measures, which were extended until 15 June 2021, include the suspension of forced expulsions and deportations, as well as the suspension of cancellations of refugee status, visas, work permits, residence permits, and other documents. Certain people are exempt from these measures, including those who disturb public order and security (including people who participate in non-sanctioned rallies and meetings, and those who support extremist activities). Reports suggest that “public danger” and extremism can be broadly interpreted in Russia, leaving large numbers of people vulnerable to deportation despite the COVID-19 measures. In mid-February 2021, 118 people were being held in the Saint Petersburg Detention Centre, awaiting removal.

After 90 days from the date of this decree, the above-mentioned suspensions will also not apply to people from states that, as of 15 December, have reopened traffic links with Russia. As a result, observers predict an increase in expulsions from 15 March onwards.

Russia has reportedly used immigration detention centres to confine people who are not migrants or asylum seekers - including Russian citizens protesting the treatment of Alexei Navalny. With so many protesters in custody, authorities could not find sufficient places within Moscow prisons. Thus, many were placed in immigration detention centres (Centers for the Temporary Detention of Foreign Nationals). At least two facilities appear to have been used for this purpose: the Sakharovo Centre (southern Moscow suburbs), and the facility in Yegoryevsk (to the south-east of Moscow).

Footage from inside the Sakharovo facility, coupled with recent detainee testimonies, have renewed concerns about conditions inside Russia's immigration detention system and have prompted debates regarding migrants rights in the country. One detainee, the editor-in-chief of the independent news outlet Mediazona, described conditions in the centre as “hellish.”

Detainees were confined in rooms with iron beds but no mattresses; there were complaints about inadequate food provisions and drinking water; rooms appeared to be dirty and rarely cleaned; and cells were reportedly excessively hot in the day and cold at night.

A particularly contentious issue were sanitary facilities, with detainees forced to use squat toilets separated from their living area by a small, waist-high wall. Campaigners have for many years called on Russian authorities to remove squat toilets from detention facilities and ensure proper privacy is provided, and while most Moscow remand facilities are now equipped with adequate toilet stalls, updates to toilets do not appear to have been made in migrant facilities.

After detainees protested the poor detention conditions--and at least one detainee reportedly went on a hunger strike--conditions have reportedly improved, with detainees provided with mattresses, improved food supplies, and some hygiene items. Discussing the conditions in the centres, Sergey Abashin (Professor of Anthropology at the European University at Saint Petersburg) argued that many of the practices first used on migrants are soon often carried over to Russian citizens. “It's all very simple: there can be no human rights and the rule of law of even a single group is taken out, first with common consent, outside of these rights and laws, sooner or later these exceptions are extended to everyone else.”


19 November 2020

Tass News, “Рынок
Tass News, “Рынок "Теплый стан" закрыт в Москве из-за спецоперации по борьбе с нелегальными мигрантами,” 11 August 2020, https://tass.ru/proisshestviya/9172709

Foreign migrant workers have been disproportionately affected by the pandemic in Russia, with large numbers losing employment amidst the economic downturn. In a survey conducted by the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration in April-May 2020, 75 percent of surveyed migrants reported having lost their jobs or being forced into unpaid leave, while 50 percent reported that they had lost all sources of income.

Citing these statistics at a meeting in August, the Deputy Head of the Security Council Dmitry Medvedev stated that high unemployment rates amongst migrant workers “creates a very fertile environment for the growth of crime potentially in this area.” Medvedev suggested that Russia implement changes to its immigration system that would make it harder for migrants to gain work permits. In particular, he proposed imitating the Kafala system (a visa-sponsorship system), which is widely used across the Gulf. “In the Arab world, there are appropriate solutions where the employer is fully responsible for the actions of a foreign citizen whom he hired to work,” he said. “This is a tough measure, but nevertheless it should probably be discussed.” Many UN experts and independent observers, however, have heavily criticized the Kafala system for leading to widespread rights abuses because it leaves migrant workers vulnerable to abuse by employers as well as to arrest, detention, and deportation.

For some Russian officials, however, Covid-related declines in the number of migrant workers (due in part to people returning to their home countries) are creating growing concerns about labour shortages. Moscow Mayor Sergei Sobyanin, for example, has warned that the city’s labour market would inevitably be affected. Noting that as of October 2020 the number of foreign migrants in the city had dropped by 40 percent this year, he said, “This affects the labor market, especially those positions that are temporarily occupied, such as snow removal. This is manual labor: shovel, broom, scrap. Not all Muscovites are ready to work in such jobs.” According to Sobyanin, these jobs will be filled by residents of other Russian regions.

Despite issuing a moratorium on new detention orders in April (see 18 April update on this platform), media reports indicate that authorities have continued to raid areas where migrant workers are known to congregate. According to Human Rights Watch (HRW), in the first two weeks of August authorities initiated a series of raids, round-ups, and detentions of migrant workers near the Tyoply Stan market in Moscow. Reportedly, the raids largely targeted Tajik migrant workers, in retaliation for a 1 August incident in which Tajik workers dragged a Tajik migrant from a police car following his arrest. According to HRW’s sources, “hundreds” were detained during these raids. Raids were also conducted in Saint Petersburg in October, with officers conducting house searches in districts including Kirovsky and Krasnogvardeisky.


24 July 2020

Uzbek Nationals Waiting Outside Vnukovo International Airport in Moscow Hoping to Buy Tickets for an Evacuation Flight, (Sergey Ponomarev,
Uzbek Nationals Waiting Outside Vnukovo International Airport in Moscow Hoping to Buy Tickets for an Evacuation Flight, (Sergey Ponomarev, "For Migrants in Russia, Virus Means No Money to Live and No Way to Leave," New York Times, 15 June 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/15/world/europe/russia-coronavirus-migrant-workers.html)

Since issuing a moratorium on new detention orders on 18 April (Decree of the President of Russia No.2745) (see 18 April update), Russia has reportedly not issued any new detention orders. This was confirmed by the Civic Assistance Committee and Memorial in a GDP survey on 21 July. The organisations also noted that some foreign nationals awaiting deportation have been released – including 125 people who were released following successful petitions by the two organisations. Of the 253 cases presented by the organisations, those who were granted release were foreign nationals and stateless persons who were able to stay with Russian citizens or who owned property in the country. (Despite important legal rulings such as that of the European Court of Human Rights in the case of Kim v Russia (2014), which called on Russia to take steps to protect stateless persons against detention, Russia continues to detain this vulnerable population. Once released, they are not issued documents that allow them to legally reside in Russia, leaving them vulnerable to re-detention.)

The Civic Assistance Committee and Memorial also note that deportations to countries such as Uzbekistan and Tajikistan—both important migrant-sending countries—have been temporarily halted.

Russia has long been home to large numbers of migrant workers—with a significant proportion hailing from Central Asia. Earning considerably less than Russian citizens, many are forced to live in overcrowded dormitories, which police have locked down if just one resident contracts the virus. During the pandemic, some 40 percent are reported to have permanently lost their jobs, leaving them reliant upon NGO and embassy assistance. With flights suspended, many have been forced to wait in airports or queue outside their embassies in the hope of a charter flight back to their country of origin. According to the New York Times, prior to the pandemic more than 15 flights left each day to various cities in Uzbekistan, but as of 15 June there were only two charter flights a week and the Uzbek embassy’s waiting list included more than 80,000 names.


18 April 2020

On 18 April, President Putin signed a decree “On Temporary Measures to Resolve the Legal Situation of Foreign Citizens and Stateless Persons in the Russian Federation in Connection with the Threat of Further Spread of the new Coronavirus Infection Covid-19.” This new decree provides that the period from 15 March until 15 June 2020 will not be included in the period of temporary stay or temporary residence in Russia for foreign nationals and stateless persons, or in their registration period if it expires. This also applies to the time limit set for foreign nationals and stateless persons to leave Russia voluntarily if they are subject to administrative expulsion, deportation, or extradition. Further, no decisions will be made during this window regarding the undesirability of foreign citizens’ and stateless persons’ stay (residence), administrative expulsion, deportation or extradition to a foreign state in accordance with international readmission agreements, deprivation of refugee status, temporary asylum, work permits, and temporary residence permits. The decree also provides that during this time period, employers may hire foreign citizens and stateless persons who do not have permission to work in the country.

While authorities have ceased the detention of foreigners and stateless persons, many immigration detention facilities remain overcrowded. With no flights and no expulsions, detainees are forced to remain confined in facilities that lack appropriate health care provision and poor sanitation. As Human Rights Watch noted in a statement issued on 16 April, an estimated 8,000 people - including families with children - are effectively being held in indefinite detention. “Russian authorities should provide safe and dignified alternatives to migration detention for people facing deportation or court-mandated expulsion. They should also improve access to healthcare and ensure social distancing and other measures to prevent the spread of Covid-19 in Russia’s migration detention centers.”


02 April 2020

Russia has taken some steps to limit immigration detainee populations. At the same time, it has taken draconian measures that have severely increased the vulnerability of thousands of migrant workers and other foreigners residing in the country.

According to ADC Memorial, the government has prohibited the placement of new people in detention centres, and instead only imposes fines for violations of migration laws. It has also permitted people to prolong their documents/permission to stay in the country. In an email to the Global Detention Project, the NGO reported that there is still severe overcrowding in some facilities, including in particular the St.Petersburg detention centre, where “people sleep on the floor on mattresses or live in the corridor on beds.” They say that the facility has reportedly sought to negotiate with the court to investigate ways to possibly reduce the population.

On 29 March 2020, human rights activists called on authorities to release migrants from the country’s detention centres. The Civic Assistance Committee published a joint letter in which they urged the state to release detainees. With no available flights, those in detention face an uncertain wait, with no date in sight for their release. On 31 March, the Sverdlovsk Regional Court overturned the expulsion of an Azerbaijani citizen, and found that the individual could no longer be detained in a SUVSIG due to the inability to deport. The judge stated: “Detention for an indefinite period of time is unacceptable, as this may become a form of punishment that is not provided for by the provisions of the legislation of the Russian Federation and which is incompatible with the provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation.”

When international attention was first alerted to the crisis unfolding in Wuhan, Moscow authorities not only temporarily barred many categories of Chinese nationals from entering the country, but also initiated raids on homes, hotels, businesses, and public transport in an effort to track down Chinese nationals and enforce quarantine measures. Those found to be violating such measures were issued expulsion orders or fined heavily. According to one Novaya Gazeta report, authorities went so far as to make phone calls to Chinese nationals ordering them to leave quarantine in order to attend medical tests or visa appointments, only to apprehend them and issue fines. On 29 February, some 80 Chinese nationals were reported to be facing deportation for violating quarantine measures.

Hundreds or even thousands of migrant workers have been stranded in airport transit zones in airports across Russia after the country cancelled flights to many of their home countries, including in particular those from Central Asia. On 1 April, Moscow Times reported that 300 Central Asian migrants were evicted from Moscow’s Domodedovo Airport overnight, having been stranded in the airport for weeks. Reportedly, they had been provided with some basic supplies while in the airport, but after this, as one Tajik migrant explained, “we were simply kicked out on the street at night in the cold.”


Last updated:

ENFORCEMENT DATA

Total Migration Detainees: Flow + Stock (year)
42,740
2015
37,522
2014
14,504
2012
12,481
2011
13,638
2010
Reported Population (Day)
Not Available
2018
Countries of Origin (Year)
Uzbekistan (Tajikistan)
2015
Total Number of Children Placed in Immigration Detention (Year)
Not Available
2017
Number of Detainees Referred to ATDs (Year)
89,192
2015
Percentage of Removals v. Total Removal Orders (Year)
0.12
2010
Total Immigration Detention Capacity
Not Available (Not Available)
2018
Criminal Prison Population (Year)
622,079
2017
675,000
2014
Percentage of Foreign Prisoners (Year)
4.3
2015
4.2
2009
Prison Population Rate (per 100,000 of National Population)
430
2017
470
2014

POPULATION DATA

Population (Year)
145,900,000
2020
146,880,432
2018
143,457,000
2015
International Migrants (Year)
11,640,559
2019
11,651,500
2017
11,643,300
2015
11,195,000
2010
International Migrants as Percentage of Population (Year)
8.1
2017
8.1
2015
Refugees (Year)
42,413
2019
77,397
2018
126,035
2017
228,936
2016
314,507
2015
235,750
2014
Ratio of Refugees Per 1000 Inhabitants (Year)
1.6
2016
1.64
2014
New Asylum Applications (Year)
8,094
2019
26,326
2016
274,744
2014
Refugee Recognition Rate (Year)
4.7
2014
Stateless Persons (Year)
75,679
2018
82,148
2017
90,771
2016
113,474
2015

SOCIO-ECONOMIC DATA & POLLS

Gross Domestic Product per Capita (in USD)
12,735
2014
Remittances to the Country
7,115
2014
Unemployment Rate
2014
Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP)
50 (High)
2015
Pew Global Attitudes Poll on Immigration
72
2007

B. Attitudes and Perceptions

MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

LEGAL & REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

Do Migration Detainees Have Constitutional Guarantees?
Yes (The Constitution of the Russian Federation, Article 22(2)) 1993
1993
Detention-Related Legislation
Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of 12/30/2013 N 1306 (as amended on 06/17/2016) on the approval of the Rules for keeping (stay) in special institutions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation or its territorial body of foreign citizens and stateless persons subject to administrative expulsion from the Russian Federation in the form of forced expulsion from the Russian Federation, deportation or readmission (Постановление Правительства РФ от 30.12.2013 N 1306 (ред. от 17.06.2016) Об утверждении Правил содержания (пребывания) в специальных учреждениях Министерства внутренних дел Российской Федерации или его территориального органа иностранных граждан и лиц без гражданства, подлежащих административному выдворению за пределы Российской Федерации в форме принудительного выдворения за пределы Российской Федерации, депортации или реадмиссии) (2012) 2016
2012
Law on Refugees (as amended by Federal Law of June 28, 1997 N 95-FZ) (as amended on July 31, 2020), (О беженцах (в редакции Федерального закона от 28 июня 1997 года N 95-ФЗ) (с изменениями на 31 июля 2020 года) (1997) 2020
1997
Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offences of 30 December 2001 N°195-FZ (as amended on July 31, 2020) (as amended and supplemented, entered into force on August 11, 2020), ("Кодекс Российской Федерации об административных правонарушениях" от 30.12.2001 N 195-ФЗ (ред. от 31.07.2020) (с изм. и доп., вступ. в силу с 11.08.2020)) (2001) 2020
2001
Law on the Legal Status of Foreign Citizens in the Russian Federation (О Правовом Положении Иностранных Граждан В Российской Федерации) (2002)
2002
Law of the Russian Federation On the State Border of the Russian Federation (Закон РФ "О Государственной границе Российской Федерации" от 01.04.1993 N 4730-1) (1993) 2007
1993
Additional Legislation
Code of Administrative Offences of the Russian Federation, No. 195-FZ of 30 December 2001 (2001) 2012
2001
Civil Procedural Code of the Russian Federation, No. 138-FZ of 14 November 2002 (2002) 2012
2002
The Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, No. 63-FZ of 13 June 1996 (1996) 2012
1996

GROUNDS FOR MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

Immigration-Status-Related Grounds
Detention for unauthorised entry or stay
2015
Criminal Penalties for Immigration-Related Violations
Yes (Yes)
1996
Grounds for Criminal Immigration-Related Incarceration / Maximum Length of Incarceration
Unauthorized entry (730)
1996
Unauthorized exit (730)
1996
Has the Country Decriminalised Immigration-Related Violations?
No
1996
Children & Other Vulnerable Groups
Accompanied minors (Provided) Yes
2018
Unaccompanied minors (Provided) Yes
2018
Stateless persons (Provided) Yes
2018
Persons with disabilities (Not mentioned) Yes
2018
Asylum seekers (Prohibited) Yes
2018
Stateless persons Yes
2015
Accompanied minors (Provided)
2015
Asylum seekers (Prohibited) Yes
2013
Mandatory Detention
Yes (Non-citizens who have violated a re-entry ban)
2016
Yes
2016
Yes
2016
Expedited/Fast Track Removal
Yes
2016
Re-Entry Ban
Yes
2016

LENGTH OF MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

Maximum Length of Administrative Immigration Detention
(720)
2018

MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION INSTITUTIONS

Custodial Authorities
The General Administration for Migration Issues (The Ministry of Internal Affairs) Internal or Public Security
2018
(Federal Migration Service) Immigration or Citizenship
2016
(Federal Migration Service) Immigration or Citizenship
2013
(Ministry for Internal Affairs) Interior or Home Affairs
2013
Police Internal or Public Security
2013
(Federal Migration Service)
2008
(Federal Migration Service)
2008
Apprehending Authorities
Police (Police)
2018
Federal Security Service (FSB) (Law enforcement, border control and national security)
2018
Detention Facility Management
Police (The Administration for Migration Issues of the Ministry of Internal Affairs) (Governmental)
2018
Federal Migration Service (Governmental)
2015
Federal Migration Service (Governmental)
2013
Ministry for Internal Affairs (Governmental)
2013
Police (Governmental)
2013
Formally Designated Detention Estate?
Yes (Dedicated immigration detention facilities)
2018
Yes (Any facility designated by relevant authority)
2018

PROCEDURAL STANDARDS & SAFEGUARDS

Procedural Standards
Independent review of detention (No)
2016
Right to legal counsel No
2016

DETENTION MONITORS

Types of Authorised Detention Monitoring Institutions
Public Monitoring Commission (Regional) (International or Regional Bodies (IRBs))
2018
High Commissioner on Human Rights in the Russian Federation (Уполномоченный по правам человека в РФ) (National Human Rights Institution (or Ombudsperson) (NHRI))
2016
European Committee for the Prevention of Torture (CPT) (International or Regional Bodies (IRBs))
2012
Is the NHRI Recognised as Independent by the Global Alliance of National Human Rights Institutions?
Yes
2016
Does NHRI Visit Immigration Detention Centres?
Yes
2014
Does NHRI Receive Complaints?
Yes
2014
Do IRBs publicly report their findings from inspections?
Yes
2012
Names of International Monitoring Bodies that Carry Out Detention Monitoring Visits
Yes
2012

TRANSPARENCY

READMISSION/RETURN/EXTRADITION AGREEMENTS

Bilateral/Multilateral Readmission Agreements
Austria (2005)
2017
Austria (2011)
2017
Belgium (2010)
2017
Bulgaria (2012)
2017
Cyprus (2011)
2017
Czech Republic (2012)
2017
Denmark (2011)
2017
Estonia (2011)
2017
Germany (2012)
2017
Finland (2013)
2017
France (2010)
2017
Greece (2004)
2017
Hungary (2011)
2017
Italy (2011)
2017
Latvia (2009)
2017
Lithuania (2003)
2017
Lithuania (2012)
2017
Luxembourg (2013)
2017
Malta (2011)
2017
Poland (1961)
2017
Poland (2013)
2017
Portugal (2013)
2017
Romania (2012)
2017
Slovakia (2010)
2017
Slovenia (2012)
2017
Spain (2011)
2017
Sweden (2012)
2017
Netherlands (2011)
2017
Norway (2012)
2017
Switzerland (2011)
2017
Armenia (2011)
2017
Bosnia and Herzegovina (2016)
2017
Belarus (2014)
2017
Moldova (2011)
2017
Serbia (2015)
2017
Ukraine (2013)
2017
Turkey (2011)
2017
Kazakhstan (2015)
2017
Kyrgyzstan (2013)
2017
Mongolia (2014)
2017
Uzbekistan (2014)
2017
Viet Nam (2009)
2017
EU (2007)
2017

COVID-19

HEALTH CARE

COVID-19 DATA

Has the country released immigration detainees as a result of the pandemic?
Yes
2020
Has the country used legal "alternatives to detention" as part of pandemic detention releases?
No
2020
Has the country Temporarily Ceased or Restricted Issuing Detention Orders?
Yes
2020
Has the Country Ceased or Restricted Deportations/Removals During any Period After the Onset of the Pandemic?
Yes
2020
Has the Country Released People from Criminal Prisons During the Pandemic?
No
2020
Has the Country Commenced a National Vaccination Campaign?
Yes
2021

INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

International Treaties Ratified
Ratification Year
Observation Date
CRPD, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
2012
2012
CTOCTP, Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children
2004
2004
CTOCSP, Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
2004
2004
CRSR, Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
1993
1993
PCRSR, Protocol to the Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
1993
1993
CRC, Convention on the Rights of the Child
1990
1990
VCCR, Vienna Convention on Consular Relations
1989
1989
CAT, Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
1987
1987
CEDAW, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
1981
1981
ICCPR, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
1973
1973
ICESCR, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
1973
1973
ICERD, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
1969
1969
Ratio of relevant international treaties ratified
Ratio: 12/19
Individual Complaints Procedures
Acceptance Year
ICERD, declaration under article 14 of the Convention 1991
1991
ICCPR, First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966 1991
1991
CEDAW, Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, 1999 2004
2004
CAT, declaration under article 22 of the Convention 1991
1991
Ratio of Complaints Procedures Accepted
Observation Date
4/7
2017
Relevant Recommendations Issued by Treaty Bodies
Recommendation Year
Observation Date
Committee on the Rights of the Child § 62. "The Committee recommends that the State party amend the Federal Refugees Act to comply with the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and ensure that it does not impose additional criteria for be ing accepted as a refugee in the country. It also urges the State party to establish safeguards against the refoulement of children where there are substantial grounds for believing that their life or freedoms would be in danger and establish child - and gender - sensitive procedures for unaccompanied and separated children." 2014
2014

NON-TREATY-BASED INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISMS

Relevant Recommendations from the UN Universal Periodic Review
Observation Date
No 2009
2017
No 2013
2017

REGIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISMS

Regional Legal Instruments
Year of Ratification (Treaty) / Transposed (Directive) / Adoption (Regulation)
Observation Date
CPCSE, Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse 2013
2013
2017
ECPT, European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment of Punishment 1998
1998
2017
ECHRP1, Protocol 1 to the European Convention on Human Rights (amended by protocol 11) 1998
1998
2017
ECHRP7, Protocol 7 to the European Convention on Human Rights (amended by protocol 11) 1998
1998
2017
ECHR, Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (commonly known as the European Convention on Human Rights 1998
1998
2017

GOVERNANCE SYSTEM

Legal Tradition(s)
Civil law
2016
Federal or Centralised Governing System
Federal system
2016
Centralised or Decentralised Immigration Authority
Centralized immigration authority
2016

DETENTION COSTS

OUTSOURCING

FOREIGN SOURCES OF FUNDING FOR DETENTION OPERATIONS