No detention centre mapping data


Russian Federation Immigration Detention

Quick Facts


Immigration detainees (2015): 42,740
Detained minors (2017): Not Available
Immigration detention capacity (2018): Not Available
International migrants (2017): 11,651,500
New asylum applications (2016): 26,326
Number of immigration detainees on a given day (2018): Not Available

Centres List

No detention centres data available

Statistics Expand all



42,740

Total number of immigration detainees by year

2015

  • Total number of immigration detainees by year
NumberObservation Date
42,7402015
37,5222014
14,5042012
12,4812011
13,6382010


Not Available

Number of immigration detainees on a given day

2018

  • Number of immigration detainees on a given day
NumberObservation Date
Not Available2018


Uzbekistan

Top nationalities of detainees

2015

  • Top nationalities of detainees
Countries ordered by rankObservation Date
Uzbekistan, Tajikistan2015


89,192

Number of persons granted alternatives to immigration detention

2015

  • Number of persons granted alternatives to immigration detention
NumberObservation Date
89,1922015


Not Available

Total number of detained minors

2017

  • Total number of detained minors
NumberObservation Date
Not Available2017


Not Available

Estimated total immigration detention capacity

2018

  • Estimated total immigration detention capacity
NumberObservation Date
Not Available2018


0.12

Percentage of persons removed in relation to total number of people placed in removal procedures

2010

  • Percentage of persons removed in relation to total number of people placed in removal procedures
PercentageObservation Date
0.122010


622,079

Criminal prison population

2017

  • Criminal prison population
NumberObservation Date
622,0792017
675,0002014


4.3

Percentage of foreign prisoners

2015

  • Percentage of foreign prisoners
PercentageObservation Date
4.32015
4.22009


430

Prison population rate (per 100,000 of national population)

2017

  • Prison population rate (per 100,000 of national population)
NumberObservation Date
4302017
4702014



146,880,432

Population

2018

  • Population
NumberObservation Date
146,880,4322018
143,457,0002015


11,651,500

International migrants

2017

  • International migrants
NumberObservation Date
11,651,5002017
11,643,3002015
11,195,0002010


8.1

International migrants as a percentage of the population

2017

  • International migrants as a percentage of the population


77,397

Refugees

2018

  • Refugees
NumberObservation Date
77,3972018
126,0352017
228,9362016
314,5072015
235,7502014


1.6

Ratio of refugees per 1000 inhabitants

2016

  • Ratio of refugees per 1000 inhabitants
NumberObservation Date
1.62016
1.642014


26,326

Total number of new asylum applications

2016

  • Total number of new asylum applications
NumberObservation Date
26,3262016
274,7442014


4.7

Refugee recognition rate

2014

  • Refugee recognition rate
NumberObservation Date
4.72014


75,679

Stateless persons

2018

  • Stateless persons
NumberObservation Date
75,6792018
82,1482017
90,7712016
113,4742015

Domestic Law Expand all

Legal tradition
NameObservation Date
Civil law2016

Core pieces of national legislation Show sources
NameYear AdoptedLast Year Amended
Law on Refugees
Code of Administrative Offences
Law on Foreigners
Law on State Borders
Additional legislation Show sources
NameYear AdoptedLast Year Amended
Code of Administrative Procedure
Code of Civil Procedure

Immigration-status-related grounds Show sources
NameObservation Date
Detention for unauthorised entry or stay2015

Maximum length for administrative immigration detention in law. Show sources
Number of DaysObservation Date
7202018

Is the detention of vulnerable persons provided in law? Are they detained in practice? Show sources
NameIn LawIn PracticeObservation Date
Accompanied minorsProvidedYes2018
Unaccompanied minorsProvidedYes2018
Stateless personsProvidedYes2018
Persons with disabilitiesNot mentionedYes2018
Asylum seekersProhibitedYes2018
Stateless personsYes2015
Accompanied minorsProvided2015
Asylum seekersProhibitedYes2013

Mandatory detention Show sources
FilterNameObservation Date
YesNon-citizens who have violated a re-entry ban2016
Yes2016
Yes2016

Expedited/fast track removal Show sources
NameObservation Date
Yes2016
Re-entry ban Show sources
NameObservation Date
Yes2016

Latest Update Show sources
Update StatusObservation Date
Since issuing a moratorium on new detention orders on 18 April (Decree of the President of Russia No.2745) (see 18 April update), Russia has reportedly not issued any new detention orders. This was confirmed by the Civic Assistance Committee and Memorial in a GDP survey on 21 July. The organisations also noted that some foreign nationals awaiting deportation have been released – including 125 people who were released following successful petitions by the two organisations. Of the 253 cases presented by the organisations, those who were granted release were foreign nationals and stateless persons who were able to stay with Russian citizens or who owned property in the country. (Despite important legal rulings such as that of the European Court of Human Rights in the case of Kim v Russia (2014), which called on Russia to take steps to protect stateless persons against detention, Russia continues to detain this vulnerable population. Once released, they are not issued documents that allow them to legally reside in Russia, leaving them vulnerable to re-detention.) The Civic Assistance Committee and Memorial also note that deportations to countries such as Uzbekistan and Tajikistan—both important migrant-sending countries—have been temporarily halted. Russia has long been home to large numbers of migrant workers—with a significant proportion hailing from Central Asia. Earning considerably less than Russian citizens, many are forced to live in overcrowded dormitories, which police have locked down if just one resident contracts the virus. During the pandemic, some 40 percent are reported to have permanently lost their jobs, leaving them reliant upon NGO and embassy assistance. With flights suspended, many have been forced to wait in airports or queue outside their embassies in the hope of a charter flight back to their country of origin. According to the New York Times, prior to the pandemic more than 15 flights left each day to various cities in Uzbekistan, but as of 15 June there were only two charter flights a week and the Uzbek embassy’s waiting list included more than 80,000 names.2020
On 18 April, President Putin signed a decree “On Temporary Measures to Resolve the Legal Situation of Foreign Citizens and Stateless Persons in the Russian Federation in Connection with the Threat of Further Spread of the new Coronavirus Infection Covid-19.” This new decree provides that the period from 15 March until 15 June 2020 will not be included in the period of temporary stay or temporary residence in Russia for foreign nationals and stateless persons, or in their registration period if it expires. This also applies to the time limit set for foreign nationals and stateless persons to leave Russia voluntarily if they are subject to administrative expulsion, deportation, or extradition. Further, no decisions will be made during this window regarding the undesirability of foreign citizens’ and stateless persons’ stay (residence), administrative expulsion, deportation or extradition to a foreign state in accordance with international readmission agreements, deprivation of refugee status, temporary asylum, work permits, and temporary residence permits. The decree also provides that during this time period, employers may hire foreign citizens and stateless persons who do not have permission to work in the country. While authorities have ceased the detention of foreigners and stateless persons, many immigration detention facilities remain overcrowded. With no flights and no expulsions, detainees are forced to remain confined in facilities that lack appropriate health care provision and poor sanitation. As Human Rights Watch noted in a statement issued on 16 April, an estimated 8,000 people - including families with children - are effectively being held in indefinite detention. “Russian authorities should provide safe and dignified alternatives to migration detention for people facing deportation or court-mandated expulsion. They should also improve access to healthcare and ensure social distancing and other measures to prevent the spread of Covid-19 in Russia’s migration detention centers.”2020
Russia has taken some steps to limit immigration detainee populations. At the same time, it has taken draconian measures that have severely increased the vulnerability of thousands of migrant workers and other foreigners residing in the country. According to ADC Memorial, the government has prohibited the placement of new people in detention centres, and instead only imposes fines for violations of migration laws. It has also permitted people to prolong their documents/permission to stay in the country. In an email to the Global Detention Project, the NGO reported that there is still severe overcrowding in some facilities, including in particular the St.Petersburg detention centre, where “people sleep on the floor on mattresses or live in the corridor on beds.” They say that the facility has reportedly sought to negotiate with the court to investigate ways to possibly reduce the population. On 29 March 2020, human rights activists called on authorities to release migrants from the country’s detention centres. The Civic Assistance Committee published a joint letter in which they urged the state to release detainees. With no available flights, those in detention face an uncertain wait, with no date in sight for their release. On 31 March, the Sverdlovsk Regional Court overturned the expulsion of an Azerbaijani citizen, and found that the individual could no longer be detained in a SUVSIG due to the inability to deport. The judge stated: “Detention for an indefinite period of time is unacceptable, as this may become a form of punishment that is not provided for by the provisions of the legislation of the Russian Federation and which is incompatible with the provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation.” When international attention was first alerted to the crisis unfolding in Wuhan, Moscow authorities not only temporarily barred many categories of Chinese nationals from entering the country, but also initiated raids on homes, hotels, businesses, and public transport in an effort to track down Chinese nationals and enforce quarantine measures. Those found to be violating such measures were issued expulsion orders or fined heavily. According to one Novaya Gazeta report, authorities went so far as to make phone calls to Chinese nationals ordering them to leave quarantine in order to attend medical tests or visa appointments, only to apprehend them and issue fines. On 29 February, some 80 Chinese nationals were reported to be facing deportation for violating quarantine measures. Hundreds or even thousands of migrant workers have been stranded in airport transit zones in airports across Russia after the country cancelled flights to many of their home countries, including in particular those from Central Asia. On 1 April, Moscow Times reported that 300 Central Asian migrants were evicted from Moscow’s Domodedovo Airport overnight, having been stranded in the airport for weeks. Reportedly, they had been provided with some basic supplies while in the airport, but after this, as one Tajik migrant explained, “we were simply kicked out on the street at night in the cold.”2020

International Law Expand all

International treaties Show sources
NameRatification Year
CRPD, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2012
CTOCTP, Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children2004
CTOCSP, Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime2004
CRSR, Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees1993
PCRSR, Protocol to the Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees1993
CRC, Convention on the Rights of the Child1990
VCCR, Vienna Convention on Consular Relations1989
CAT, Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment1987
CEDAW, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women1981
ICCPR, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights1973
ICESCR, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights1973
ICERD, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination1969
Ratio of relevant international treaties ratified
  12/19
Individual complaints procedure Show sources
NameAcceptance Year
ICERD, declaration under article 14 of the Convention1991
ICCPR, First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 19661991
CEDAW, Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, 19992004
CAT, declaration under article 22 of the Convention1991
Ratio of complaints procedures accepted Show sources
NumberObservation Date
4/72017

Bilateral/multilateral agreements linked to readmission Show sources
NameYear in ForceObservation Date
Austria20052017
Austria20112017
Belgium20102017
Bulgaria20122017
Cyprus20112017
Czech Republic20122017
Denmark20112017
Estonia20112017
Germany20122017
Finland20132017
France20102017
Greece20042017
Hungary20112017
Italy20112017
Latvia20092017
Lithuania20032017
Lithuania20122017
Luxembourg20132017
Malta20112017
Poland19612017
Poland20132017
Portugal20132017
Romania20122017
Slovakia20102017
Slovenia20122017
Spain20112017
Sweden20122017
Netherlands20112017
Norway20122017
Switzerland20112017
Armenia20112017
Bosnia and Herzegovina20162017
Belarus20142017
Moldova20112017
Serbia20152017
Ukraine20132017
Turkey20112017
Kazakhstan20152017
Kyrgyzstan20132017
Mongolia20142017
Uzbekistan20142017
Viet Nam20092017
EU20072017

Relevant recommendations of the UN Universal Periodic Review Show sources
Recomendation IssuedYear IssuedObservation Date
No20092017
No20132017

Institutions Expand all

Federal or centralized governing system
Federal or centralized governing systemObservation Date
Federal system2016
Centralized or decentralized immigration authority
Centralized or decentralized immigration authorityObservation Date
Centralized immigration authority2016

Custodial authority Show sources
AgencyMinistryMinistry TypologyObservation Date
The General Administration for Migration IssuesThe Ministry of Internal AffairsInternal or Public Security2018
Federal Migration ServiceImmigration or Citizenship2016
Federal Migration ServiceImmigration or Citizenship2013
Ministry for Internal AffairsInterior or Home Affairs2013
PoliceInternal or Public Security2013
Federal Migration Service2008
Federal Migration Service2008
Apprehending authorities Show sources
NameAgencyMinistryObservation Date
PolicePolice2018
Federal Security Service (FSB)Law enforcement, border control and national security2018
Detention Facility Management Show sources
Entity NameEntity TypeObservation Date
Police (The Administration for Migration Issues of the Ministry of Internal Affairs)Governmental2018
Federal Migration ServiceGovernmental2015
Federal Migration ServiceGovernmental2013
Ministry for Internal AffairsGovernmental2013
PoliceGovernmental2013
Formally designated detention estate? Show sources
Formally designated immigration detention estate?Types of officially designated detention centresObservation Date
YesDedicated immigration detention facilities2018
YesAny facility designated by relevant authority2018

Authorized monitoring institutions Show sources
InstitutionInstitution TypeObservation Date
Public Monitoring Commission (Regional)International or Regional Bodies (IRBs)2018
High Commissioner on Human Rights in the Russian Federation (Уполномоченный по правам человека в РФ)National Human Rights Institution (or Ombudsperson) (NHRI)2016
European Committee for the Prevention of Torture (CPT)International or Regional Bodies (IRBs)2012
Is the national human rights institution (NHRI) recognized as independent? Show sources
Is the NHRI recognized as independent by the International Coordinating Committee of National Human Rights Institutions?Observation Date
Yes2016
Does NHRI carry out visits? Show sources
Does NHRI carry out visits in practice?Observation Date
Yes2014
Does NHRI have capacity to receive complaints? Show sources
Does NHRI have capacity to receive complaints?Observation Date
Yes2014
Do international and/or regional bodies (IRBs) visit immigration-related detention facilities? Show sources
Do international and/or regional bodies (IRB) regularly visit immigration-related detention facilities?Observation Date
Yes2012
Do IRBs publicly report their findings from inspections? Show sources
Do IRBs publicly report their findings from detention inspections?Observation Date
Yes2012

Socio Economic Data Expand all

Gross Domestic Product per capita (in USD) Show sources
Gross Domestic Product per capita (in USD)Observation Date
12,7352014
Remittances to the country Show sources
Remittances to the country (in millions USD)Observation Date
7,1152014
Unemployment Rate Show sources
Unemployment RateObservation Date
2014
Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP) Show sources
Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP)UNDP four-tiered rankingObservation Date
50High2015

Pew Global Attitudes Poll on Immigration Show sources
% who agree with the statement “We should restrict and control entry of people into our country more than we do now.”Observation Date
722007

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