Cambodia

Not Available

Immigration detainees

2019

Not Available

Detained children

2017

27

New asylum applications

2019

78,649

International migrants

2019

16,700,000

Population

2020

Overview

Types of facilities used for migration-related detention
Administrative Ad Hoc Criminal Unknown

20 May 2020

Prison Personnel Sitting at an ICRC Training on Chlorine Disinfection to Prevent the Spread of Covid-19, (
Prison Personnel Sitting at an ICRC Training on Chlorine Disinfection to Prevent the Spread of Covid-19, ("Prison Staff Receive Red Cross Training," The Phnom Penh Post, 20 April 2020, https://bit.ly/3e6RUjJ)

Cambodia has had few confirmed cases of Covid-19, numbering just over 100 as of mid-May. The country has taken a number of measures to prevent the spread of the disease. On 20 March, the border with Vietnam was closed and general entry restrictions were implemented for foreign travelers. On 30 March, it suspended the issuance of visas for all foreign nationals. In April, travel between provinces and districts was restricted.

Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, many businesses have closed in Thailand and in consequence, more than 90,000 Cambodian migrant workers have lost their employment and many have returned to Cambodia. UN agencies report that they are working with the Cambodian Government to ensure that migrant workers and their families receive assistance in terms of shelter and food. The UN and partners are working to include migrants in the social protection support package being proposed as part of the exceptional measures created by the Government to mitigate the impact of Covid-19 among vulnerable groups.

IOM Cambodia has printed and distributed information, education and communication materials developed by the Ministry of Health and the WHO. The organisation is also collaborating with UNICEF to manage a hotline providing returning migrants with information regarding access to essential healthcare and psychological support. In addition, IOM Cambodia says that it is working with border authorities to monitor migrants’ cross border movement in order to understand their mobility, respond to their needs, and inform preparedness and response strategies.

Human Rights Watch says that Cambodian authorities are using the Covid-19 pandemic to carry out arbitrary arrests of opposition supporters and government critics. At least 30 people, including 12 linked to the now dissolved Cambodian National Rescue Party have been arrested on charges of spreading “fake news” and other offences. HRW has urged the government to immediately and unconditionally drop the charges against all those accused of crimes in violation of their rights to freedom of expression and association.

Human rights groups have called on the government to take measures in the country’s prisons, which reportedly have nearly 40,000 inmates despite a capacity of just over 25,000. Due to overcrowding, social distancing measures are effectively impossible in the country’s prisons. Human Rights Watch called on the government to “immediately release people who should not be in custody, including pretrial detainees held for minor offenses, and political prisoners.” According to Amnesty International, Cambodian detention facilities “are a ‘ticking time bomb’ for a potentially disastrous coronavirus outbreak.” Footage releases by the organization revealed terrible conditions in which inmates are being held. The Director in the Office of the Secretary-General at Amnesty International called out the government to “urgently ease this overcrowding crisis while giving all detainees access to appropriate healthcare without discrimination.”

ICRC reports that it has been working in prisons to prevent the spread of Covid-19. On 10 April, the organisation signed an agreement with the General Department of Prisons for the donation of 20 tonnes of medical materials including 50kg of calcium hypochlorite powder, protective clothing, boots, gloves, goggles, water spray buckets, sanitisers and medical face masks. On 20 April, it organised training on disinfection of prisons with chlorine for 28 different prisons. The Ministry of Health insisted that prisoners must wash their hands regularly, not touch their faces and wear masks.

In late March, HRW reported that Cambodian Muslims had been facing discrimination since the beginning of the pandemic. They were accused by the Health Ministry of spreading the virus, which led to “led to an outburst of discriminatory and hateful comments online, and discriminatory daily interactions at markets, shops, and community areas against Cambodia’s minority Muslim communities.”


Last updated:

ENFORCEMENT DATA

Total Detainees/ Stock & Flow (Year)
Not Available
2019
Total Number of Children Placed in Immigration Detention (Year)
Not Available
2017
Criminal Prison Population (Year)
21,989
2016
14,697
2013
14,043
2010
10,902
2007
6,778
2004
6,179
2001
3,233
1998
2,490
1995
Percentage of Foreign Prisoners (Year)
4.2
2016
3.9
2011
Prison Population Rate (per 100,000 of National Population)
138
2016
100
2013
99
2010
79
2007
51
2004
49
2001
27
1998
22
1995

POPULATION DATA

Population (Year)
16,700,000
2020
15,578,000
2015
International Migrants (Year)
78,649
2019
74,000
2015
International Migrants as Percentage of Population (Year)
0.5
2015
Refugees (Year)
67
2017
61
2016
76
2015
63
2014
New Asylum Applications (Year)
27
2019
208
2016
37
2014
Refugee Recognition Rate (Year)
50
2014
Stateless Persons (Year)
57,444
2018
0
2016
0
2015

SOCIO-ECONOMIC DATA & POLLS

Gross Domestic Product per Capita (in USD)
1,094
2014
Remittances to the Country
304
2014
Unemployment Rate
2014
Net Official Development Assistance (ODA) (in Millions USD)
799.4
2014
Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP)
143 (Medium)
2015

B. Attitudes and Perceptions

MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

LEGAL & REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

GROUNDS FOR MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

LENGTH OF MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION INSTITUTIONS

Custodial Authorities
(Cambodian police)
2006
(Cambodian police)
2006
()

PROCEDURAL STANDARDS & SAFEGUARDS

DETENTION MONITORS

TRANSPARENCY

READMISSION/RETURN/EXTRADITION AGREEMENTS

COVID-19

COVID-19 DATA

INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

International Treaties Ratified
Ratification Year
Observation Date
ICPED, International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance
2013
2013
CRPD, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
2012
2012
OPCAT, Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
2007
2007
CTOCTP, Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children
2007
2007
VCCR, Vienna Convention on Consular Relations
2006
2006
CTOCSP, Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
2005
2005
ICCPR, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
1992
1992
ICESCR, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
1992
1992
CEDAW, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
1992
1992
CAT, Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
1992
1992
CRC, Convention on the Rights of the Child
1992
1992
CRSR, Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
1992
1992
PCRSR, Protocol to the Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
1992
1992
ICERD, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
1983
1983
Individual Complaints Procedures
Acceptance Year
Observation Date
CEDAW, Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, 1999 2010
2010
2017
Ratio of Complaints Procedures Accepted
Observation Date
1/8
2017

NON-TREATY-BASED INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISMS

Relevant Recommendations from the UN Universal Periodic Review
Observation Date
No 2010
2017
No 2014
2017

REGIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISMS

Regional Legal Instruments
Year of Ratification (Treaty) / Transposed (Directive) / Adoption (Regulation)
Observation Date
ASEAN CATPWC Convention Against Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children 2016
2016
2017

GOVERNANCE SYSTEM

Legal Tradition(s)
Civil law
2017

DETENTION COSTS

OUTSOURCING

FOREIGN SOURCES OF FUNDING FOR DETENTION OPERATIONS