Turkmenistan

Not Available

Immigration detainees

2019

Not Available

Detained children

2017

21

Refugees

2019

195,127

International migrants

2019

6,000,000

Population

2020

Overview

Types of facilities used for migration-related detention
Administrative Ad Hoc Criminal Unknown

15 January 2021

RFE/RL, “Deadly Prison Outbreak Belies Turkmenistan's 'Coronavirus-Free' Claim,” 16 October 2020, https://www.rferl.org/a/deadly-prison-outbreak-belies-turkmenistan-s-coronavirus-free-claim/30897206.html
RFE/RL, “Deadly Prison Outbreak Belies Turkmenistan's 'Coronavirus-Free' Claim,” 16 October 2020, https://www.rferl.org/a/deadly-prison-outbreak-belies-turkmenistan-s-coronavirus-free-claim/30897206.html

Despite soaring infection rates in many parts of the world, authorities in Turkmenistan continue to deny the existence of Coronavirus within the country and have failed to promote preventive measures such as social distancing. At the end of December, the country extended the suspension of international flights, as well as domestic rail and bus services, until at least 31 January 2021. Land borders with Afghanistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan are due to remain closed until further notice. The only persons permitted to enter the country are Turkmen nationals, diplomats, permanent residents, and workers in critical industries and key infrastructure--all of whom are required to quarantine for 14 days in a state-run facility upon entry. Details of this facility, and conditions within it, remain scarce.

Authorities regularly suppress and retaliate against independent media, which makes it difficult to develop a reliable picture of the situation in the country. However, reports from European-based news outlets with sources inside the country have maintained that prisons and schools have witnessed outbreaks, and that hospitals have become increasingly overcrowded with patients suffering “pneumonia-like” symptoms. In October, for example, RFE/RL reported that the DZ-K/8 Women’s Correctional Facility in Dashoguz had witnessed a “big” outbreak, in which at least three inmates had died. Reportedly, authorities established a quarantine block at the centre housing more than 200 inmates--some of whom were “in grave condition.”

Turkmenistan does not experience significant migratory pressure, and it is unclear whether any non-nationals are confined in detention facilities. Although national law provides for granting refugee status and asylum, no-one has been granted refugee status since 2009, when the Turkmen government took over Refugee Status Determination from UNHCR. No new asylum seekers have been registered since 2005.

The government routinely denies freedom of movement to its citizens. According to Turkmen law, people are to be banned from leaving “if their exit contravenes the interests of the national security of Turkmenistan.” Migration officials reportedly stop non-approved travellers at the airport to prevent them from departing. According to the U.S State Department’s 2020 Trafficking in Persons report, these policies make Turkmen nationals who wish to leave the country unofficially vulnerable to traffickers.


Last updated:

IMMIGRATION AND DETENTION-RELATED STATISTICS

Total number of immigration detainees by year
Not Available
2019
Total number of detained minors
Not Available
2017
Criminal prison population
30,568
2013
10,953
2006
13,462
2005
22,000
2000
18,000
1997
Percentage of foreign prisoners
0.7
2006
Prison population rate (per 100,000 of national population)
583
2013
224
2006
280
2005
489
2000
400
1997
Population
6,000,000
2020
5,374,000
2015
International migrants
195,127
2019
196,400
2015
International migrants as a percentage of the population
3.7
2015
Refugees
21
2019
22
2018
23
2017
26
2016
27
2015
Ratio of refugees per 1000 inhabitants
0.01
2014
Stateless persons
4,714
2018
3,851
2017
5,744
2016
7,144
2015

SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDICATORS

Gross Domestic Product per capita (in USD)
9,031
2015
Remittances to the country
30
2014
Unemployment Rate
2014
Net official development assistance (ODA) (in millions USD)
34.2
2014
Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP)
109 (Medium)
2015

DOMESTIC LAWS AND POLICIES

Legal tradition
Civil law
2017

INTERNATIONAL LAW

Individual complaints procedure
Acceptance Year
ICCPR, First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966 1997
1997
CEDAW, Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, 1999 2009
2009
CRPD, Optional Protocol to o the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2010
2010
Ratio of complaints procedures accepted
Observation Date
3/7
2017
Relevant recommendations issued by treaty bodies
Recommendation Year
Committee against Torture 34. The Committee recommends that the State party adopt the following measures in order to ensure that the prohibition against refoulement is respected in practice: […]; (b) Ensure that asylum seekers, including detainees, have access to independent, qualified and free legal advice and representation, that their protection needs are duly recognized and that refoulement is prevented; (c) Establish a system for collecting and providing the following data to the Committee and other relevant observers, for the period from 2012 to the present: […]; (iii) The number of foreigners detained in detention facilities; […] 2017
2017
Relevant recommendations of the UN Universal Periodic Review
Observation Date
No 2009
2017
No 2013
2017

INSTITUTIONAL INDICATORS