Eritrea

Not Available

Immigration detainees

2019

Not Available

Detained children

2017

199

Refugees

2019

16,101

International migrants

2019

3,500,000

Population

2020

Overview

(August 2016) The detention of migrants does not appear to be a significant issue in Eritrea as it is not a destination for migrants but rather a source country for refugees attempting to flee to Europe and the Gulf. Eritrea’s authoritarian government reportedly does not provide information on the detention of foreigners or allow independent groups to monitor detention centres, making it effectively impossible to get any details about this issue.

Types of facilities used for migration-related detention
Administrative Ad Hoc Criminal Unknown

11 September 2020

Eritrean Refugee Camp in the Tigray Region near the Eritrean Border, (Tiksa Negeri, Reuters,
Eritrean Refugee Camp in the Tigray Region near the Eritrean Border, (Tiksa Negeri, Reuters, "Ethiopia plans to close Eritrean refugee camp despite concerns," Al Jazeera, 19 April 2020, https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/04/ethiopia-plans-close-eritrean-refugee-camp-concerns-200417165129036.html)

Although Eritrea long hosted a small population of Somali refugees (roughly 2,000 as of early 2019), in mid-2019 the government closed its only refugee camp, Umkulu, spurring most of the refugees to flee across the border into neighbouring Ethiopia. By the end of 2019, UNHCR reported that there were only 650 refugees remaining in the country. The move to shut the camp came after many years of growing concerns about the treatment of foreigners in the country, including past concerns about possible clandestine detention of migrants. However, there appears to be no public information available about the current status of refugees and migrants in the country, nor about any efforts to safeguard them during the Covid-19 pandemic.

On 3 April, UN Special Rapporteur for Human Rights in Eritrea called on the government to “immediately and unconditionally release those detained without legal basis, including all political prisoners and prisoners of conscience, and to adopt urgent measures to reduce the number of people in detention to prevent the spread of COVID-19.” In addition, Human Rights Concern Eritrea, a local NGO, urged the government to release the 10,000 prisoners of conscience that are detained throughout the country’s 350 facilities. The organisation stated that in Eritrean prisons, there may be 100-400 people in a single cell. Containers are also reportedly used to hold some 30 detainees at the same time.

Prison visits were suspended on 2 April. However, according to Amnesty International, sanitary measures were not implemented. Conditions in prisons have been described as inhumane due to the “overcrowding and the general lack of adequate sanitation, healthcare and food.” In Adi Abeyito prison, which is meant to accommodate 800 people, there have been reports of the populations exceeding 2,500. Amnesty International also noted that there are many unofficial detention centres across the country about which there is little or no information available.


Last updated: August 2016

Eritrea Immigration Detention Profile

    As Eritrea is not a transit or destination country, the detention of migrants does not appear to be a significant issue.[1] Nevertheless, according to the Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat, it is difficult to know the true extent of immigration-related detention in Eritrea because the authoritarian government denies access to relevant information and prohibits monitoring by independent groups and the International Committee for the Red Cross.

    In 2013, the U.S. Department of State reported that there were no foreigners detained in Eritrea that year. However, when the Eritrean government was questioned about missing people from other countries, authorities prevented foreign officials from accessing relevant   information.

    A related aspect of Eritrea’s detention practices is its detention and punishment of Eritrean nationals who attempt to leave the country without authorisation. Punishment varies depending on the intended destination of the fleeing person. For example, trying to enter Sudan is punishable by three years imprisonment, while attempting to enter Ethiopia is punishable by death. In addition, it has been reported that Eritrean refugees and asylum seekers who are returned to Eritrea are often detained and tortured. It is also not uncommon for those caught fleeing Eritrea to be held in secret locations without outside contact.

     

    [1] This summary relies primarily on information gathered from reports from the Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat, in particular its February 2015 report Behind Bars: The Detention of Migrants in and from the East & Horn of Africa, available at http://www.regionalmms.org/fileadmin/content/rmms_publications/Behind_Bars_the_detention_of_migrants_in_and_from_the_East___Horn_of_Africa_2.pdf; and the U.S. State Department’s 2013 human rights report on Eritrea, available at http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/220321.pdf.

    ENFORCEMENT DATA

    Total Detainees/ Stock & Flow (Year)
    Not Available
    2019
    Total Number of Children Placed in Immigration Detention (Year)
    Not Available
    2017

    POPULATION DATA

    Population (Year)
    3,500,000
    2020
    5,228,000
    2015
    International Migrants (Year)
    16,101
    2019
    15,900
    2015
    15,800
    2013
    International Migrants as Percentage of Population (Year)
    0.3
    2015
    0.2
    2013
    Refugees (Year)
    199
    2019
    2,252
    2018
    2,392
    2017
    2,342
    2016
    2,549
    2015
    2,898
    2014
    Ratio of Refugees Per 1000 Inhabitants (Year)
    0.44
    2016
    0.57
    2014
    0.5
    2013
    New Asylum Applications (Year)
    7
    2016
    Stateless Persons (Year)
    0
    2016
    0
    2014

    SOCIO-ECONOMIC DATA & POLLS

    Gross Domestic Product per Capita (in USD)
    544
    2011
    Unemployment Rate
    2014
    Net Official Development Assistance (ODA) (in Millions USD)
    83.3
    2014
    Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP)
    186 (Low)
    2015

    B. Attitudes and Perceptions

    MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

    LEGAL & REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

    GROUNDS FOR MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

    LENGTH OF MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

    MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION INSTITUTIONS

    PROCEDURAL STANDARDS & SAFEGUARDS

    DETENTION MONITORS

    TRANSPARENCY

    READMISSION/RETURN/EXTRADITION AGREEMENTS

    COVID-19

    HEALTH CARE

    COVID-19 DATA

    INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

    International Treaties Ratified
    Ratification Year
    Observation Date
    CTOCTP, Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children
    2014
    2018
    CAT, Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
    2014
    2014
    CTOCTP, Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children
    2014
    2014
    ICCPR, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
    2002
    2002
    ICERD, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
    2001
    2001
    ICESCR, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
    2001
    2001
    VCCR, Vienna Convention on Consular Relations
    1997
    1997
    CEDAW, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
    1995
    1995
    CRC, Convention on the Rights of the Child
    1994
    1994
    Ratio of relevant international treaties ratified
    Ratio: 9/19

    NON-TREATY-BASED INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISMS

    Relevant Recommendations from the UN Universal Periodic Review
    Observation Date
    No 2014
    2017
    No 2010
    2017

    REGIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISMS

    Regional Legal Instruments
    Year of Ratification (Treaty) / Transposed (Directive) / Adoption (Regulation)
    Observation Date
    ACHPR, African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights 1999
    1999
    2017
    ACRWC, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child 1999
    1999
    2017

    GOVERNANCE SYSTEM

    Legal Tradition(s)
    Civil law
    2017
    Customary law
    2017
    Muslim law
    2017

    DETENTION COSTS

    OUTSOURCING

    FOREIGN SOURCES OF FUNDING FOR DETENTION OPERATIONS