Mongolia

Not Available

Immigration detainees

2019

Not Available

Detained children

2017

21

New asylum applications

2019

21,128

International migrants

2019

3,300,000

Population

2020

Overview

Types of facilities used for migration-related detention
Administrative Ad Hoc Criminal Unknown

27 September 2020

The Mongolian Military Mans a Checkpoint During a Covid-19 Outbreak Drill, on 7 May 2020, (A. Nyamdavaa,
The Mongolian Military Mans a Checkpoint During a Covid-19 Outbreak Drill, on 7 May 2020, (A. Nyamdavaa, "Practice Makes Perfect? Mongolia's Covid-19 Outbreak Drill," The Diplomat, 9 May 2020, https://thediplomat.com/2020/05/practice-makes-perfect-mongolias-covid-19-outbreak-drill/)

Mongolia has been lauded for its efforts to contain the coronavirus despite having a long, porous border with China. As of 23 September, there had been 313 confirmed cases of COVID-19, and no deaths. However, there appears to be no publicly available information indicating the impact of the virus on migrants or asylum seekers, or whether people in detention or prisons were given additional safeguards to prevent the spread of the disease.

The Law of Mongolia on the Legal Status of Foreign Nationals provides that foreign nationals can be detained for immigration-related offences, and that detention centres are to be established in the capital city and/or at border checkpoints. The rules of operation for these detention centers are to be approved by a Member of Cabinet in charge of justice in consultation with the State Prosecutor. However, little information is publicly available regarding the treatment of migrants or asylum seekers in immigration enforcement procedures in the country.

The Mongolian constitution guarantees the right to seek asylum; however, the Child Education Institute of Mongolia and the Institute on Statelessness and Inclusion report that protection is “poor and the law permits the Agency for Foreign Citizens and Naturalization (the country’s immigration agency) to deport failed asylum seekers.” In addition, refugees reportedly do not have access to necessary services such as health care and education, nor the right to work. In its 2020 UPR submission on Mongolia to the Human Rights Council, Amnesty International recommended that the country ratify the UN Refugee Convention.

Because of its long border with China, Mongolia has long been seen as being particularly vulnerable to human trafficking activities. These concerns have grown as the country’s demand for cheap labour for its mining industry has increased. According to the 2020 U.S. Trafficking in Persons Report, while there have been positive developments in the government’s identification of victims and prosecution of traffickers, there remain gaps in its ability to identify foreign or male victims, establish standard identification or referral procedures, and investigate cases of labour exploitation.


Last updated:

DETENTION, EXPULSION, AND INCARCERATION STATISTICS

Total number of immigration detainees by year
Not Available
2019
Total number of detained minors
Not Available
2017
Criminal prison population
7,690
2014
7,930
2013
7,044
2010
7,570
2008
6,998
2005
7,256
2002
6,414
1999
6,070
1996
6,085
1993
Percentage of foreign prisoners
0.4
2014
0.3
2013
Prison population rate (per 100,000 of national population)
262
2014
274
2013
255
2010
284
2008
274
2005
295
2002
268
1999
261
1996
267
1993

DEMOGRAPHICS AND IMMIGRATION-RELATED STATISTICS

Population
3,300,000
2020
2,959,000
2015
International migrants
21,128
2019
17,600
2015
International migrants as a percentage of the population
0.6
2015
Refugees
7
2018
6
2017
0
2016
9
2015
6
2014
Total number of new asylum applications
21
2019
0
2016
10
2014
Refugee recognition rate
100
2014
Stateless persons
14
2016
16
2015

SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDICATORS

Gross Domestic Product per capita (in USD)
4,129
2014
Remittances to the country
265
2014
Unemployment Rate
2014
Net official development assistance (ODA) (in millions USD)
314.6
2014
Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP)
90 (High)
2015

DOMESTIC LAWS AND POLICIES

Legal tradition
Customary law
2017
Civil law
2017
Core pieces of national legislation
Law of Mongolia on the Legal Status of Foreign Nationals (2010) 2010
2010

INTERNATIONAL LAW

Ratio of relevant international treaties ratified
Ratio: 14/19
Individual complaints procedure
Acceptance Year
ICCPR, First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966 1991
1991
CEDAW, Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, 1999 2002
2002
CRPD, Optional Protocol to o the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2009
2009
CRC, [Third] Optional Protocol to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child establishing a communications procedure, 2011 2015
2015
ICESCR, Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 2008 2010
2010
Ratio of complaints procedures accepted
Observation Date
5/8
2017
Relevant recommendations of the UN Universal Periodic Review
Observation Date
No 2011
2017
No 2015
2017

INSTITUTIONAL INDICATORS