Iraq

No Data

Immigration detainees

No Data

Detained children

283,022

Refugees

2018

40,200,000

Population

2020

Overview

Types of facilities used for migration-related detention
Administrative Ad Hoc Criminal Unknown

Related Reading

21 September 2020

InfoMigrants, “First European Voluntary Return Flight to Iraq Since Start of Pandemic,” 4 September 2020, https://www.infomigrants.net/en/post/27057/first-european-voluntary-return-flight-to-iraq-since-start-of-pandemic
InfoMigrants, “First European Voluntary Return Flight to Iraq Since Start of Pandemic,” 4 September 2020, https://www.infomigrants.net/en/post/27057/first-european-voluntary-return-flight-to-iraq-since-start-of-pandemic

Since March, Iraq has imposed movement restrictions and closed border points to control the spread of the virus. The border closures have been a major obstacle for refugees and asylum seekers, mainly from Syria. However, UNHCR reports that since July the Peshkhabour Border Crossing Point has been open intermittently—albeit only to accept the readmission of Syrians already registered in the Kurdish Region of Iraq (KR-I). More recently, with cases rising rapidly in the country, the government announced the closure of the border with Iran—believed to be in order to prevent Iranian pilgrims from entering the country to mark Arbaeen in Najaf and Karbala.

Iraq’s 1.4 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) also represent an extremely vulnerable group in the country. Many IDPs live in precarious and overcrowded shelters that lack adequate hygiene facilities. NGOs and international organisations have provided sanitation kits and health counselling.

According to UNHCR, as of 27 August 2020 a total of 68 Covid-19 cases have been confirmed amongst the refugee and IDP community—including in camps in Anbar, Dohuk, Erbil, and Ninewa Governorates. In some camps, management have initiated lockdowns in-line with Camp Coordination and Camp Management Covid-19 preparedness and response plans.

On 2 September, for the first time since border closures in March, a “voluntary” repatriation flight from Europe returned some 50 Iraqis. The flight was provided by Germany, France, the Netherlands, and Belgium, together with the IOM, and was supported by the EU and financed by Frontex.


Last updated:

IMMIGRATION AND DETENTION-RELATED STATISTICS

Criminal prison population
42,880
2014
47,690
2013
Prison population rate (per 100,000 of national population)
123
2014
139
2013
Population
40,200,000
2020
36,423,000
2015
International migrants
353,900
2015
International migrants as a percentage of the population
1
2015
Refugees
283,022
2018
277,672
2017
261,882
2016
277,701
2015
271,143
2014
Ratio of refugees per 1000 inhabitants
6.97
2016
7.69
2014
Total number of new asylum applications
4,195
2016
2,524
2014
Refugee recognition rate
89.2
2014
Stateless persons
47,515
2018
47,630
2017
48,200
2016
50,000
2015
Total number of immigration detainees by year
Number of immigration detainees on a given day
Top nationalities of detainees
Number of persons granted alternatives to immigration detention
Number of detained asylum seekers
Total number of detained minors
Number of detained unaccompanied minors
Number of detained accompanied minors
Number of detained stateless persons
Number of apprehensions of non-citizens
Immigration detainees as a percentage of total international migrant population
Estimated total immigration detention capacity
Number of dedicated long-term immigration detention centres
Estimated capacity of dedicated long-term immigration detention centres
Number of dedicated medium-term immigration detention centres
Number of immigration offices
Number of transit facilities
Number of criminal facilities
Number of ad hoc facilities
Number of persons removed/returned (voluntary returns and deportations)
Number of deportations/forced returns only
Percentage of persons removed in relation to total number of people placed in removal procedures
Percentage of foreign prisoners
Estimated number of undocumented migrants

SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDICATORS

Gross Domestic Product per capita (in USD)
6,420
2014
Remittances to the country
271
2014
Unemployment Rate
2014
Net official development assistance (ODA) (in millions USD)
1,369.8
2014
Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP)
121 (Medium)
2015
Remittances from the country
Unemployment rate amongst migrants
Detention for deterrence
Pew Global Attitudes Poll on Immigration
Immigration Index Score
World Bank Rule of Law Index
Domestic Opinion Polls on Immigration

DOMESTIC LAWS AND POLICIES

Legal tradition
Civil law
2017
Muslim law
2017
Constitutional guarantees?
Core pieces of national legislation
Additional legislation
Regulations, standards, guidelines
Immigration-status-related grounds
Non-immigration-status-related grounds providing for administrative detention in immigration legislation.
Does the country provide specific criminal penalties for immigration-related violations?
Grounds for criminal immigration-related detention/incarceration and maximum potential duration of incarceration
Has the country decriminalized immigration-related violations?
Maximum length for administrative immigration detention in law.
Longest recorded instance of immigration detention.
Maximum length of time in custody prior to issuance of a detention order
Average length of detention
Maximum length of detention for asylum-seekers
Maximum length of detention for persons detained upon arrival at ports of entry
Provision of basic procedural standards
Types of non-custodial measures
Impact of alternatives
Is the detention of vulnerable persons provided in law? Are they detained in practice?
Mandatory detention
Expedited/fast track removal
Re-entry ban

INTERNATIONAL LAW

International treaty reservations
Reservation Year
Observation Date
CRC Article 14 1994
1994
1994
CEDAW Article 2 1986
1986
1986
Ratio of complaints procedures accepted
Observation Date
0/8
0/8
Relevant recommendations issued by treaty bodies
Recommendation Year
Committee on the Rights of the Child

§26. ...the Committee notes with concern that:

(a)    Victims of trafficking and of prostitution are reportedly being mistreated or abused during interrogation, and incarcerated, fined, convicted, deported or otherwise penalized for unlawful acts such as prostitution and immigration violations;

(b)    There are cases of girls sold into prostitution being kept in prison to “protect” them from reprisals for bringing shame on their family/community;

(c)    Mechanisms have not been put in place for the identification of child victims of offences under the Optional Protocol, and officials have not been trained or provided with any guidance to identify these child victims or children at particular risk, such as undocumented foreign migrant children or children arrested on prostitution charges.

§27.    The Committee urges the State party to:

(a)    Take prompt measures to ensure that children’s testimonies are regarded as full proof, and that children are allowed to file a complaint on their own behalf;

(b)    Immediately remove from prison all women and girls detained allegedly for their protection and provide them with all the support necessary;

(c)    Establish an effective system of reporting, with a child-sensitive inquiry and judicial procedure that fully protects children’s privacy and dignity;

(d)    Establish effective mechanisms to identify, detect and monitor children in vulnerable situations who are at risk of becoming victims of offences under the Optional Protocol, and provide these mechanisms with the necessary human, financial and technical resources, as well as training, for them to identify children who are  victims or at risk of offences under the Protocol;

(e)    Ensure that every child who has fallen victim to any of the crimes under the Optional Protocol is under no circumstances treated as a criminal, but always as a victim, and is provided with all the necessary protection, support and access to reintegration and recovery services;

(f)     Ensure that victims of trafficking are protected from any form of mistreatment and abuse when in contact with law enforcement officials, and have access to reporting channels.

2015
2015
Regional legal instruments
Year of Ratification (Treaty) / Transposed (Directive) / Adoption (Regulation)
AC, Arab Charter on Human Rights 2012
2012
Relevant recommendations of the UN Universal Periodic Review
Observation Date
No 2010
2017
No 2014
Ratio of relevant international treaties ratified
Individual complaints procedure
Treaty bodies decisions on individual complaints
Regional treaty reservations
Regional judicial decisions on individual complaints
Recommendations issued by regional human rights mechanisms
Bilateral/multilateral agreements linked to readmission
Visits by special procedures of the Human Rights Council
Relevant recommendations by UN Special Procedures

INSTITUTIONAL INDICATORS

Federal or centralized governing system
Centralized or decentralized immigration authority
Custodial authority
Apprehending authorities
Detention Facility Management
Formally designated detention estate?
Types of detention facilities used in practice
Authorized monitoring institutions
Is the national human rights institution (NHRI) recognized as independent?
Does NHRI carry out visits?
Does NHRI have capacity to receive complaints?
Does NHRI publicly release reports on immigration detention?
Does national preventive mechanism (NPM) carry out visits?
Does NPM have capacity to receive complaints?
Does NPM publicly release reports on immigration detention?
Do NGOs carry out visits?
NGO capacity to receive complaints?
Do NGOs publish reports on immigration detention?
Do parliamentary organs carry out visits?
Do parliamentary organs have capacity to receive complaints?
Do parliamentary organs publicly report on their detention findings?
Do internal inspection agencies (IIAs) carry out visits?
Do IIAs have capacity to receive complaints?
Do IIAs publicly report their findings from detention inspections?
Do international and/or regional bodies (IRBs) visit immigration-related detention facilities?
Do IRBs publicly report their findings from inspections?
Types of privatisation/outsourcing
Detention contractors and other non-state entities
Estimated annual budget for detention operations
Estimated annual budgets for particular detention-related activities
Estimated cost per detainees day (in USD)
Estimated annual budget for non-custodial measures (in USD)
Estimated costs of non-custodial measures (in USD)
Does the country receive external sources of funding?
Description of foreign assistance