Iraq

Not Available

Immigration detainees

2019

Not Available

Detained children

2017

1,060

New asylum applications

2019

273,986

Refugees

2019

368,062

International migrants

2019

Overview

Types of facilities used for migration-related detention
Administrative Ad Hoc Criminal Unknown

21 September 2020

InfoMigrants, “First European Voluntary Return Flight to Iraq Since Start of Pandemic,” 4 September 2020, https://www.infomigrants.net/en/post/27057/first-european-voluntary-return-flight-to-iraq-since-start-of-pandemic
InfoMigrants, “First European Voluntary Return Flight to Iraq Since Start of Pandemic,” 4 September 2020, https://www.infomigrants.net/en/post/27057/first-european-voluntary-return-flight-to-iraq-since-start-of-pandemic

Since March, Iraq has imposed movement restrictions and closed border points to control the spread of the virus. The border closures have been a major obstacle for refugees and asylum seekers, mainly from Syria. However, UNHCR reports that since July the Peshkhabour Border Crossing Point has been open intermittently—albeit only to accept the readmission of Syrians already registered in the Kurdish Region of Iraq (KR-I). More recently, with cases rising rapidly in the country, the government announced the closure of the border with Iran—believed to be in order to prevent Iranian pilgrims from entering the country to mark Arbaeen in Najaf and Karbala.

Iraq’s 1.4 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) also represent an extremely vulnerable group in the country. Many IDPs live in precarious and overcrowded shelters that lack adequate hygiene facilities. NGOs and international organisations have provided sanitation kits and health counselling.

According to UNHCR, as of 27 August 2020 a total of 68 Covid-19 cases have been confirmed amongst the refugee and IDP community—including in camps in Anbar, Dohuk, Erbil, and Ninewa Governorates. In some camps, management have initiated lockdowns in-line with Camp Coordination and Camp Management Covid-19 preparedness and response plans.

On 2 September, for the first time since border closures in March, a “voluntary” repatriation flight from Europe returned some 50 Iraqis. The flight was provided by Germany, France, the Netherlands, and Belgium, together with the IOM, and was supported by the EU and financed by Frontex.


Last updated:

ENFORCEMENT DATA

Total Detainees/ Stock & Flow (Year)
Not Available
2019
Total Number of Children Placed in Immigration Detention (Year)
Not Available
2017
Criminal Prison Population (Year)
42,880
2014
47,690
2013
Prison Population Rate (per 100,000 of National Population)
123
2014
139
2013

POPULATION DATA

Population (Year)
40,200,000
2020
36,423,000
2015
International Migrants (Year)
368,062
2019
353,900
2015
International Migrants as Percentage of Population (Year)
1
2015
Refugees (Year)
273,986
2019
283,022
2018
277,672
2017
261,882
2016
277,701
2015
271,143
2014
Ratio of Refugees Per 1000 Inhabitants (Year)
6.97
2016
7.69
2014
New Asylum Applications (Year)
1,060
2019
4,195
2016
2,524
2014
Refugee Recognition Rate (Year)
89.2
2014
Stateless Persons (Year)
47,515
2018
47,630
2017
48,200
2016
50,000
2015

SOCIO-ECONOMIC DATA & POLLS

Gross Domestic Product per Capita (in USD)
6,420
2014
Remittances to the Country
271
2014
Unemployment Rate
2014
Net Official Development Assistance (ODA) (in Millions USD)
1,369.8
2014
Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP)
121 (Medium)
2015

B. Attitudes and Perceptions

MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

LEGAL & REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

GROUNDS FOR MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

LENGTH OF MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION INSTITUTIONS

PROCEDURAL STANDARDS & SAFEGUARDS

DETENTION MONITORS

TRANSPARENCY

READMISSION/RETURN/EXTRADITION AGREEMENTS

COVID-19

HEALTH CARE

COVID-19 DATA

INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

International Treaties Ratified
Ratification Year
Observation Date
CRPD, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
2013
2013
CAT, Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
2011
2011
ICPED, International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance
2010
2010
CTOCSP, Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
2009
2009
CTOCTP, Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children
2009
2009
CRC, Convention on the Rights of the Child
1994
1994
CEDAW, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
1986
1986
ICCPR, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
1971
1971
ICESCR, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
1971
1971
ICERD, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
1970
1970
VCCR, Vienna Convention on Consular Relations
1970
1970
Ratio of relevant international treaties ratified
Ratio: 11/19
Treaty Reservations
Reservation Year
Observation Date
CRC Article 14 1994
1994
1994
CEDAW Article 2 1986
1986
1986
Ratio of Complaints Procedures Accepted
Observation Date
0/8
0/8
Relevant Recommendations Issued by Treaty Bodies
Recommendation Year
Observation Date
Committee on the Rights of the Child

§26. ...the Committee notes with concern that:

(a)    Victims of trafficking and of prostitution are reportedly being mistreated or abused during interrogation, and incarcerated, fined, convicted, deported or otherwise penalized for unlawful acts such as prostitution and immigration violations;

(b)    There are cases of girls sold into prostitution being kept in prison to “protect” them from reprisals for bringing shame on their family/community;

(c)    Mechanisms have not been put in place for the identification of child victims of offences under the Optional Protocol, and officials have not been trained or provided with any guidance to identify these child victims or children at particular risk, such as undocumented foreign migrant children or children arrested on prostitution charges.

§27.    The Committee urges the State party to:

(a)    Take prompt measures to ensure that children’s testimonies are regarded as full proof, and that children are allowed to file a complaint on their own behalf;

(b)    Immediately remove from prison all women and girls detained allegedly for their protection and provide them with all the support necessary;

(c)    Establish an effective system of reporting, with a child-sensitive inquiry and judicial procedure that fully protects children’s privacy and dignity;

(d)    Establish effective mechanisms to identify, detect and monitor children in vulnerable situations who are at risk of becoming victims of offences under the Optional Protocol, and provide these mechanisms with the necessary human, financial and technical resources, as well as training, for them to identify children who are  victims or at risk of offences under the Protocol;

(e)    Ensure that every child who has fallen victim to any of the crimes under the Optional Protocol is under no circumstances treated as a criminal, but always as a victim, and is provided with all the necessary protection, support and access to reintegration and recovery services;

(f)     Ensure that victims of trafficking are protected from any form of mistreatment and abuse when in contact with law enforcement officials, and have access to reporting channels.

2015
2015
2015

NON-TREATY-BASED INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISMS

Relevant Recommendations from the UN Universal Periodic Review
Observation Date
No 2010
2017
No 2014

REGIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISMS

Regional Legal Instruments
Year of Ratification (Treaty) / Transposed (Directive) / Adoption (Regulation)
Observation Date
AC, Arab Charter on Human Rights 2012
2012

GOVERNANCE SYSTEM

Legal Tradition(s)
Civil law
2017
Muslim law
2017

DETENTION COSTS

OUTSOURCING

FOREIGN SOURCES OF FUNDING FOR DETENTION OPERATIONS