No detention centre mapping data


Romania Immigration Detention

An emigrant nation that saw millions of citizens leave in search of work after the demise of the Soviet Union, Romania has recently begun to contend with immigration. As part of its accession to the European Union, the country remodeled its migration policy, aligning it with the EU acquis and incorporating provisions for the removal and detention of irregular non-citizens. Now a key EU border country, Romania has received technical and financial support from the European Commission (EC) to strengthen its administrative detention capacity, including by establishing secure transit centres for processing asylum seekers.

Quick Facts


Immigration detainees (2012): 671
Persons expelled (2014): 2,085
International migrants (2015): 226,900
New asylum applications (2016): 1,894

Profile Updated: May 2010

Romania Immigration Detention Profile

An emigrant nation that saw millions of citizens leave in search of work after the demise of the Soviet Union, Romania has recently begun to contend with immigration. As part of its accession to the European Union (EU), the country remodelled its migration policy, aligning it with the EU acquis and incorporating provisions for the removal and detention of irregular migrants. Now a key EU border country, Romania has received technical and financial support from the European Commission (EC) to strengthen its administrative detention capacity, including by establishing secure transit centres for processing asylum seekers.

Detention Policy

Romania’s first consolidated migration-related law—the Aliens Law—was passed in 2001 (EC 2004, p.17). When the country came under consideration for EU membership in the early 2000s, a number of Twinning projects­—EC-sponsored projects aimed at restructuring public institutions—were implemented to improve management of the country’s borders and other migration-related matters (EC 2004, p.17). The EC contributed some €11 million towards “enhancing the capacity of the Romanian Border Police in order to further strengthen the Romanian borders, as the future EU Eastern border,” and an additional €4 million to train Border Police and assist border management (EC 2002, p.18).

In December 2002, the Romanian government passed a revised Aliens Law to bring it into line with EU regulations. The new law, which has subsequently been amended several times, contains provisions for the rights and obligations of foreign nationals entering, residing, and/or working in Romania, as well as for their exclusion, expulsion, and/or detention.

In 2004, the EU and Romania established a “National Migration Strategy” that aimed to consolidate Romania’s migration, asylum, and citizenship laws, and to streamline the coordination of government agencies working on asylum and migration-related activities (EIROnline 2007; Focus Migration 2007). In 2007, the Romanian Immigration Office (RIO) was formed, merging the Authority for Aliens and the National Refugee Office (GDISC “Romania”).

Grounds for removal. According to the 2002 Aliens Law, immigration authorities can order a “measure of removal from the Romanian territory” for foreign nationals who do not have permission to stay in the country (Regime of Aliens, Amendment 482/2004, Art. 79). People issued a removal order are required to voluntarily depart within a specified period of time (Art. 80). If they fail to leave within the specified time, they can be issued a “measure of return” and escorted to the border (Arts. 86-88). A “measure of return” can also be issued to foreign nationals for entering the country illegally; overstaying their visas; failing to leave in accordance with a removal order; or failing to leave the country within the required time after having their asylum applications rejected (Aliens Law, amendment 113/2005, Art. 86).

Grounds for detention (“public custody”). A magistrate can issue an order “restraining free movement on Romanian territory” (a detention order) for foreign nationals who cannot be returned within the established period of time “as well as against the alien declared undesirable or against whom the court took the measure of expulsion” (Aliens Law, amendment 113/2005, Art. 93).

A person issued a “measure of return” can be taken into “public custody” when “the measure of return cannot be enforced within 24 hours” (Art. 87(3)). The Prosecutor’s Office affiliated with the Court of Appeal in Bucharest authorises taking a foreign national into public custody after receiving a request to do so from the Romanian Immigration Office or its territorial units (Art. 91(2)). Provisions for appealing a measure of return were introduced in the 2004 Aliens Law amendments (Art. 861). Provisions for appealing detention are provided in Article 93, paragraph 8.

Foreign nationals who commit crimes on Romanian territory (criminal aliens) can be issued a “measure of expulsion,” which revokes the right of the person to remain in the country (Art. 91). The court can order that these non-citizens be taken into public custody until removed from the country, for up to two years (Aliens Law, Amendment 113/2005, Art. 91 & 93).

A person can be subject to a “declaration of undesirability” from the Prosecution Department affiliated with the Tribunal of Bucharest if they “performed, performs or there is strong evidence that he intends to perform such activities as to endanger the national security and public order” (Art. 83). Such a declaration immediately revokes a persons right to stay in the country (Art. 83), and the prosecutor who declares a person to be undesirable “shall also take the decision of taking the person into public custody” (Art. 93. para (4)). Grounds for appealing a declaration of undesirability are provided for in Article 85.

Immigration detainees are confined in “accommodation centres,” which operate under the authority of the Minister of Interior (Art. 94(3-4)).

Length of detention. Persons detained based on a measure of return can be held in public custody for up to 30 days. If, after 30 days, they still cannot be removed from the country, the Romanian Immigration Office can request the local court of appeal to renew the period of public custody (Art. 93(5)) for up to six months (Art. 93(6)). After six months, the person can be granted “tolerance for remaining on the Romanian territory” (Art. 98). Those detained based on a measure of expulsion can be held in custody for up to two years. If they are not deported within this period, they are to be granted tolerance to remain in Romania and released (Amendment 113/2005, Art.99). Tolerance is never granted to non-citizens declared to be “undesirable” (Art. 99), and observers have noted that they can be detained indefinitely, even if they have been granted some form of protection (JRS website).

Criminalization. In 2002, a Governmental Emergency Ordinance on Romania’s State Border introduced criminal convictions and penalties for irregular entry or exit to/from Romania. Article 70 of this Emergency Ordinance provides that, “the entrance or exit of the country by illegal crossing of the state border is a criminal act and is punished with imprisonment from 3 months to 2 years.” The law also introduced penalties for anyone who “recruits, guides or leads one or more persons so as to cross illegally the state border” (Art. 71).

Asylum seekers. Romania has ratified the UN Refugee Convention and its protocol. Asylum provisions are contained in the Law Regarding Asylum in Romania (2006).

Although asylum seekers are generally not detained in Romania once they enter official asylum procedures, they can be subject to detention for an initial 20-day period after requesting asylum. Article 93(71) of the Aliens Law safeguards asylum seekers from detention except when “reasons of national security and public order” require their removal or that they be kept “in public custody up to the moment the asylum procedure is finalised” (Aliens Law, Amendment 482/2004, Art. 99).

Asylum seekers are entitled, but are not required, to reside in non-secure “reception and accommodation centres” run by the RIO for the duration of the procedure (Art. 17(1k)). Asylum seekers must adhere to certain obligations, including remaining in their designated city of residence, unless granted the authority to leave by the RIO (previously National Refugee Office) (Asylum Law, Art. 19).

People who apply for protection at the border can be detained in “the transit area of the state border checkpoint” for up to 20 days for an initial assessment of their application (Asylum Law, Art. 87(1)). The law stipulates that they can be confined in secure “special reception and accommodation centres found in the vicinity of the state border checkpoints, which are established through an order of the Minister of Administration and the Interior and have the same legal status as the transit area.” Foreign nationals detained in transit zone facilities are considered not to have entered Romanian territory (Leonescu 2010); the Global Detention Project categorises these facilities as transit zones. If a decision has not been made on the application for protection within 20 days, the person should be released (Art. 87(6)).

Romania also operates a semi-secure “Emergency Transport Centre” in conjunction with the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the International Organisation for Migration (IOM). The facility provides accommodation for people in urgent need of protection outside their home countries (for more information, see “Detention Infrastructure” below).

Moldova and Romania. Mobility between Moldova and Romania significantly increased in the second half of the 1990s due to amendments to the 1991Romanian Citizenship Law. As part of the changes, Moldovans with Romanian ancestry—of which there are many due to the pre-1949 unity of the two countries—are permitted to migrate to and obtain citizenship in Romania. The changes to Romanian law received criticism in the United Kingdom, where one media outlet reported, “Hundreds of thousands of migrants from Moldova, Europe’s poorest country, have secured a backdoor route allowing them to flood into Britain” (London Evening Standard 2006).

Researchers have estimated that around 250,000 Moldovan citizens received Romanian citizenship during the 1990s (Focus Migration 2007), and applications for citizenship have greatly increased since Romania imposed visa requirements for Moldovans when it joined the EU in 2007. Romanian President Traian Basescu estimated that around one million Moldovans applied for Romanian citizenship in 2007 alone (RFE 2010).

Detention Infrastructure

Romania operates two dedicated immigration detention facilities, several secure reception centres located in border zones, and one “Emergency Transport Centre,” which is operated in cooperation with the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the International Organisation for Migration (IOM).

The two dedicated facilities are the Otopeni Detention Centre for Foreigners and the Arad Accommodation Centre (Leonescu 2010; CPT 2006). Both facilities operate under provisions in the Aliens Law for accommodating foreign nationals taken into public custody because of their status (Art. 94). They are under the authority of the Minister of Interior, and are managed by the Romanian Immigration Office (Leonescu 2010). The Aliens Law states that these facilities must be “established, organised, sanitarily authorised, arranged and equipped so as to offer civilised conditions of accommodation, food, medical assistance and personal hygiene” (Art. 94(3-4)). According to Article 94 of the Aliens Law, foreign nationals detained because of their status “shall be confined to accommodation centres” that are “closed places, especially arranged, administered by the Authority for Aliens and … intended for the temporary accommodation of the aliens against whom the measure of return or expulsion was ordered or who were declared undesirable and who were taken into public custody.”

Rights and obligations of foreign nationals held in detention centres are provided for in Articles 95 and 96 of the Aliens Law, including, inter alia, access to rights “provided in the international treaties in the field, to which Romania is a party; the right to medical and social assistance; the right to be informed in a comprehensible language to them the grounds on which they have been held in custody and their rights and obligations while in custody; the right to contact diplomatic or consular representatives of their country of origin; the right to fair treatment by centre staff; and the obligation to comply with the rules, the daily program and order of the accommodation centre.”

Article 97 requires foreign nationals convicted by a final court sentence to be detained separately from other non-citizens in public custody. According to JRS, the Law for Foreigners does not stipulate visitation rights for persons in secure centres. Yet in practice, detainees receive visits from family members, friends, lawyers, NGOs, and UNHCR staff (JRS website).

The Bucharest Otopeni Accommodation Centre is located near the Otopeni Airport (Leonescu 2010; BPT 2006). It was opened in January 1999 and was originally used to detain both irregular migrants and asylum seekers (UNHCR 1999). As part of a 2001 Twinning project, the European Commission invested in the expansion and renovation of the facility (EC 2001), which was completed in 2004. The facility, which can hold up to 164 people (Leonescu 2010), offers residents a medical clinic, library, special places for worship, sports hall, and football court (RICB website). The average number of people detained at the facility at any one time is 20 (Leonescu 2010).

The Arad Accommodation Centre is located in Horia, Arad, in Western Romania, close to the border with Hungary (JRS website). The facility has a capacity of 56, and there are, on average, six people detained in the facility at a given time (Leonescu 2010). The Arad accommodation centre is, according to JRS, used to detain foreign nationals who are required to remain in public custody for longer than one month (Leonescu 2010).

Transit accommodation centres. In the early 2000s, Romania opened a number of transit accommodation centres for the medium-term (maximum 20 days) administrative detention of people who request asylum at the border. Foreign nationals detained in these facilities are considered not to have entered Romanian territory (Leonescu 2010), and the Global Detention Project therefore categorises them as transit zones. They are managed by the General Inspectorate of the Border Police, under the authority of the Ministry of the Interior. According to one observer, the average length migrants are held in the transit facilities is between 2 and 15 days (Leonescu 2010).

Six transit facilities were in operation by 2006, with a combined capacity of 1,312 (Focus Migration 2007). Transit facilities include those located at airports, such as the Bucharest-Baneasa International Airport (CPT 2006); the Bucuresti Henri Coanda Airport (formerly Otopeni Airport), which opened on 11 July 2001 (JRS website; CPT 2006, EC 2003, p.8); a facility at the Constanta Harbour; and a centre in Romanesti, at the border with Moldova (Leonescu 2010). Because two-thirds of Romania’s border is shared with non-EU countries, observers speculate that the transit facilities were introduced in anticipation of the enforcement of the EU Dublin II regulation, which requires the state where an applicant first enters EU territory to process the asylum claim (Focus Migration 2007).

Emergency Transit Centre. In May 2008, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the International Organisation for Migration (IOM), and the Romanian government signed a Tri-Partite Agreement (TPA) to establish an Emergency Transit Centre (ETC) in Timisoara. According to UNHCR, the ETC has two distinct operations: (1) it operates as a semi-secure accommodation centre for UNHCR-recognized refugees who require “temporary evacuation” from their first countries of asylum and are “in urgent need of international protection” while awaiting “onward resettlement”; (2) it operates as a non-secure reception centre for asylum seekers being processed under Romanian national law (Li Rosi 2010a).

Refugees assigned to the ETC provide their consent to conditions at the ETC facility before entering the country and are issued with temporary identity documents by the Romanian Ministry of Home Affairs and Administrative Reform (MIRA) allowing them to stay in Romania for up to six months (UNHCR et al. 2009, p.3, 5, 15). Up to 200 refugees can be accommodated at the facility and administrative limitations are placed on their freedom of movement. According to UNHCR, “Refugees accommodated on the grounds of the TPA may only leave the centre accompanied by authorized UNHCR, IOM, or UNHCR implementing partner NGO staff” (Li Rosi 2010a). This form of custody is coded by the Global Detention Project as semi-secure. However, UNHCR contends that this facility should not be considered a “detention centre,” despite the limitations on individual freedom. According to UNHCR, “A deprivation of liberty underlines the concept of lack of will, autonomy, or a lack of freedom of choice. Refugees evacuated to the ETC had freely expressed their free will prior to arrival to Romania by deciding to sign a Consent Form, which specified the main modalities of their stay in the Timisoara ETC” (Li Rosi 2010a).

The ETC is jointly managed by the three signatories of the TPA (Li Rosi 2010b). UNCHR identifies persons in need of evacuation, provides them with refugee status, secures their onward resettlement and, together with implementing local NGO partner Generatie Tanara, provides food and domestic items, psycho-social support, education, recreational activities, language training, and medical care. IOM handles the transportation of refugees to and from Romania, conducts health screenings on arrival and prior to final departure, and provides cultural orientation programmes. The government of Romania provides security and maintains order at the facility, issues refugees with identity documents, and approves each new UNHCR refugee before he/she can enter the country (UNHCR et al. 2009, p.8).

Facts & Figures

Romania maintains two dedicated immigration detention facilities as well as six secure transit accommodation centres for asylum seekers.

According to the Romanian Immigration Office (RIO), 3,872 migrants received removal orders in 2007 (JRS 2008). During the first six months of 2007, 2,916 people were found to be residing irregularly in Romania, of which 401 were returned by force and 257 were placed in administrative detention. Countries to which migrants were returned included Moldova, Turkey, China, India, Morocco, Nigeria, Iran, Liberia, Sudan, Cameroon, and Somalia (JRS website).

During the first six months of 2008, roughly 6,000 irregular migrants were identified (JRS website). The Romanian Border Police reported in July 2008 that the number of irregular migrants in Romania doubled between July 2007 and July 2008. The majority of them reportedly reside in Bucharest, Lasi, and Constanta, as well as the border towns of Galati, Timis, Arad, and Bihor (JRS 2008).

The number of asylum applications in Romania fluctuates. A total of 15,605 applications were made between 1991 and the end of 2006. The number of persons applying for asylum in Romania significantly decreased between 2002 (1,150 asylum applications) and 2006 (380 applications), which one observer claims could be due to Romania’s relatively low asylum acceptance rate (Focus Migration 2007). Applications for asylum in Romania were projected to increase as the EU Dublin II regulation is enforced, which requires the state where an applicant first enters EU territory to process the asylum claim (Focus Migration 2007). During the first six months of 2008, 87 people were granted refugee status through the asylum procedure and seven were granted subsidiary protection. Fifteen people were granted refugee status in court procedures, and 28 subsidiary protection (JRS website).

At the end of 2008 there were 303 pending asylum applications in Romania (UNHCR 2009), and in 2008 a total of 931 people applied for asylum, an increase of 45 percent from the year before (JRS website). Some 350 asylum seekers entered the country legally, 554 irregularly. Nearly 90 asylum requests were submitted from non-citizens in detention. Asylum seekers in Romania often originate from Pakistan, India, Iraq, Bangladesh, and Turkey (JRS website). The asylum procedure generally lasts between six and eight months. Romania has been, and remains, a source country of irregular migration. One research institution places the number of irregular Romanian residents in Italy at 600,000, which is in addition to the 300,000 legal Romanian residents recorded by Italian authorities in 2005 (Focus Migration 2007).

References

  • Aliens Law (Emergency Ordinance n. 194/2002 on the regime of aliens). 2002. With subsequent amendments: 194/2002; 482/2004; 113/2005. Romanian Government.
  • Baldwin-Edwards, M. 2005. Migration policies for a Romania within the European Union: Navigating between Scylla and Charybdis. UEHR Working Papers – Mediterranean Migration Observatory. MMO Working Paper No. 7, December 2005.
  • Council of Europe Anti-Torture Committee (CPT). 2006. “Council of Europe Anti-Torture Committee visits Romania.” News Flash. 23 June 2006.
  • European Commission (EC). 2002. Twinning: Further strengthening of border control and improved management of migration. Twinning Project No. RO-2002/000-586.04.14
  • European Commission (EC). 2004. Twinning: Development of the legislative and institutional framework in the field of migration. Twinning Project No. RO 2001/IB/JH/01.
  • European Commission (EC). 2007. Twinning: Support to Turkey’s Capacity in Combating Illegal Migration and Establishment of Removal Centres for Illegal Migrants. Twinning Project No. TR 07 02 16.
  • European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or punishment (CPT). 2001. Preliminary observations made by the delegation of the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) which visited Turkey from 2 to 14 September 2001 and Response of the Turkish authorities. Council of Europe. F-67075. Strasbourg. 6 September 2006.
  • Jesuit Refugee Service. 2008. “Romania: draft bill establishing Emergency Transit Centre introduced.” JRS. 16 September 2008.http://www.jrs.net/news/index.php?lang=en&sid=3712 (accessed 18 March 2010).
  • Jesuit Refugee Service Europe (JRS). Website. “Detention in Europe: Romania.” Jesuit refugee Service. http://www.detention-in-europe.org/index.php?option=content&task=view&id=240 (accessed 18 March 2010).
  • Law Regarding Asylum in Romania. 2006. Government of Romania.
  • Law on Romania’s State Border. 2001. Governmental Emergency Ordinance No. 105/2001. Government of Romania.
  • Lazaroiu, S & Alexandru, M. 2005. 2005. Controlling Exits to Gain Accession: Romanian migration policy in the making. Centro Studidi Politica Internazionale (CeSPI) with the support of Compagnia di San Paolo.November 2005.
  • Leonescu, Stefan (Jesuit Refugee Service Romania). 2010. Email message to Cecilia Cannon (Global Detention Project). 3 May 2010. Global Detention Project. Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Li Rosi, Angela (Senior Policy Adviser, Policy Development and Evaluation Service (PDES), Executive Office, UNHCR HQ). 2010a. Email message to Cecilia Cannon (Global Detention Project). 21 April 2010. Global Detention Project. Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Li Rosi, Angela (Senior Policy Adviser, Policy Development and Evaluation Service (PDES), Executive Office, UNHCR HQ). 2010b. Email message to Cecilia Cannon (Global Detention Project). 14 May 2010. Global Detention Project. Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Radio Free Europe (RFE). 2010. “Romania eases entrance for Moldovans on border.” Radio Free Europe. 2 March 2010.http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4b98a7d4c.html (accessed 18 March 2010).
  • Romanian Information Centre in Brussels (RICB). 2005. “New center for immigrants opened.” News article. 27 June 2005.http://crib.mae.ro/index.php?lang=en&id=31&s=4064&arhiva=true (accessed 18 March 2010).
  • London Evening Standard. 2006. “300,000 immigrants secure backdoor route into Britain.” London Evening Standard. http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/news/article-23369745-300000-immigrants-secure-backdoor-route-into-britain.do (accessed 18 March 2010).
  • United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). 1999.Background Information on the Situation in the Republic of Romania in the Context of the Return of Asylum Seekers. 1 December 1999.www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6b33aa4.html (accessed 12 April 2010).
  • United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). 2009. 2008Global Trends: refugees, Asylum-seekers, Returnees, Internally Displaced and Stateless Persons. UNHCR. 16 June 2009.http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49c364c4d6.html (accessed 29 July 2009).
  • United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); Government of Romania & International Organisation for Migration (IOM). 2009. The Emergency Transit Centre in Romania: Bringing refugees to safety. UNHCR, with the assistance of the European Commission. 9 July 2009.

Centres List

No detention centres data available

Statistics Expand all



671

Total number of immigration detainees by year

2012

  • Total number of immigration detainees by year
NumberObservation Date
6712012
5332011
4712010


2,335

Number of apprehensions of non-citizens

2014

  • Number of apprehensions of non-citizens
NumberObservation Date
2,3352014
2,4002013
2,1452012


0.3

Immigration detainees as a percentage of total international migrant population

2010

  • Immigration detainees as a percentage of total international migrant population
PercentageObservation Date
0.32010


2,085

Number of persons removed/returned (voluntary returns and deportations)

2014

  • Number of persons removed/returned (voluntary returns and deportations)
NumberObservation Date
2,0852014
2,2352013
2,8902012


100

Percentage of persons removed in relation to total number of people placed in removal procedures

2014

  • Percentage of persons removed in relation to total number of people placed in removal procedures
PercentageObservation Date
1002014


27,133

Criminal prison population

2017

  • Criminal prison population
NumberObservation Date
27,1332017
32,3462014


1.1

Percentage of foreign prisoners

2016

  • Percentage of foreign prisoners
PercentageObservation Date
1.12016
0.62014


138

Prison population rate (per 100,000 of national population)

2017

  • Prison population rate (per 100,000 of national population)
NumberObservation Date
1382017
1622014



19,511,000

Population

2015

  • Population
NumberObservation Date
19,511,0002015
21,400,0002012


226,900

International migrants

2015

  • International migrants
NumberObservation Date
226,9002015
198,8002013
156,0002010


1.2

International migrants as a percentage of the population

2015

  • International migrants as a percentage of the population
PercentageObservation Date
1.22015
0.92013


2,855

Refugees

2016

  • Refugees
NumberObservation Date
2,8552016
2,5982015
1,7702014


0.11

Ratio of refugees per 1000 inhabitants

2014

  • Ratio of refugees per 1000 inhabitants
NumberObservation Date
0.112014
0.062012


1,894

Total number of new asylum applications

2016

  • Total number of new asylum applications
NumberObservation Date
1,8942016
1,5462014
2,5112012


25.9

Refugee recognition rate

2014

  • Refugee recognition rate
NumberObservation Date
25.92014


249

Stateless persons

2016

  • Stateless persons
NumberObservation Date
2492016
2942015
2972014

Domestic Law Expand all

Legal tradition Show sources
NameObservation Date
Civil law2017

Does the country provide specific criminal penalties for immigration-related violations? Show sources
FinesIncarcerationObservation Date
YesYes2014
Grounds for criminal immigration-related detention/incarceration and maximum potential duration of incarceration Show sources
Grounds for IncarcerationMaximum Number of Days of IncarcerationObservation Date
Unauthorized entry7302014

Types of non-custodial measures Show sources
NameIn LawIn PracticeObservation Date
Designated non-secure housingYesinfrequently2014
Supervised release and/or reportingYesinfrequently2014
Registration (deposit of documents)NoNo2014
Release on bailNoNo2014
Electronic monitoringNoNo2014

Is the detention of vulnerable persons provided in law? Are they detained in practice? Show sources
NameIn LawIn PracticeObservation Date
Unaccompanied minorsNo2016

International Law Expand all

International treaties Show sources
Ratio of relevant international treaties ratified
  14/16
Individual complaints procedure Show sources
NameAcceptance Year
CEDAW, Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, 19992003
ICCPR, First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 19661993
ICERD, declaration under article 14 of the Convention1970
Ratio of complaints procedures accepted Show sources
NumberObservation Date
3/7
3/7

Bilateral/multilateral agreements linked to readmission Show sources
NameYear in ForceObservation Date
Germany19922017
Austria20022017
Belgium20062017
Bulgaria20002017
Croatia20022017
Spain19972017
Estonia20052017
Finland20012017
France19942017
France20072017
Greece19952017
Hungary20022017
Ireland20012017
Italy19982017
Latvia20042017
Lithuania20042017
Luxembourg20062017
Netherlands20062017
Poland19942017
Portugal20032017
Czech Republic20042017
United Kingdom20042017
Slovakia20052017
Slovenia20022017
Sweden20022017
Iceland20082017
Norway20032017
Switzerland20092017
Albania20052017
Macedonia20062017
Moldova20022017
Russian Federation20122017
Lebanon20042017
Turkey20042017

Relevant recommendations of the UN Universal Periodic Review Show sources
Recomendation IssuedYear IssuedObservation Date
No20082017
No20132017

Institutions Expand all

Custodial authority Show sources
AgencyMinistryMinistry TypologyObservation Date
Ministry of InteriorInterior or Home Affairs2010
Ministry of InteriorInterior or Home Affairs2006
Detention Facility Management Show sources
Entity NameEntity TypeObservation Date
Romanian Immigration OfficeGovernmental2010
General Inspectorate of the Border PoliceGovernmental2010
General Inspectorate of the Border PoliceGovernmental2006
Types of detention facilities used in practice
Immigration detention centre (Administrative)Immigration field office (Administrative)Transit centre (Administrative)Reception centre (Administrative)Offshore detention centre (Administrative)Hospital (Administrative)Border guard (Administrative)Police station (Criminal)National penitentiary (Criminal)Local prison (Criminal)Juvenile detention centre (Criminal)Informal camp (Ad hoc)Immigration detention centre (Ad hoc)Surge facility (Ad hoc)Observation Date
2015

Authorized monitoring institutions Show sources
InstitutionInstitution TypeObservation Date
Romanian Institute for Human Rights (Instituţiei Avocatul Poporului)National Human Rights Institution (or Ombudsperson) (NHRI)2016
European Committee for the Prevention of Torture (CPT)International or Regional Bodies (IRBs)2006
Is the national human rights institution (NHRI) recognized as independent? Show sources
Is the NHRI recognized as independent by the International Coordinating Committee of National Human Rights Institutions?Observation Date
No2016
Does NHRI carry out visits? Show sources
Does NHRI carry out visits in practice?Observation Date
Yes2016
Does NHRI have capacity to receive complaints? Show sources
Does NHRI have capacity to receive complaints?Observation Date
Yes2016
Does national preventive mechanism (NPM) carry out visits? Show sources
Does NPM carry out visits in practice?Observation Date
Yes2016
Does NPM publicly release reports on immigration detention? Show sources
Does NPM publicly release reports on immigration detention?Observation Date
Yes2016

Socio Economic Data Expand all

Gross Domestic Product per capita (in USD) Show sources
Gross Domestic Product per capita (in USD)Observation Date
9,9962014
9,4992013
Remittances to the country Show sources
Remittances to the country (in millions USD)Observation Date
3,4302014
3,8112011
Remittances from the country Show sources
Remittances from the country (in millions USD)Observation Date
3602010
Unemployment Rate Show sources
Unemployment RateObservation Date
72014
Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP) Show sources
Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP)UNDP four-tiered rankingObservation Date
52Very high2015
54High2014

Country Links


Additional Resources


Back To Top