Somaliland

No Data

Immigration detainees

No Data

Detained children

Overview

Somaliland, an autonomous region of Somalia and an unrecognized self-declared state, is a destination, transit, and source country for migrants and asylum seekers in the Horn of Africa. The arrest and detention of undocumented foreigners is common as the authorities seek to restrict the flow of transit migrants. Immigration-related detention tends to last for only a few days and migrants are deported as quickly as possible.

Types of facilities used for migration-related detention
Administrative Ad Hoc Criminal Unknown

Related Reading

Last updated: July 2016

Somaliland Immigration Detention Profile

Somaliland, an autonomous region of Somalia and an unrecognized self-declared state, is an origin, destination, and transit country for migrants in the Horn of Africa. Many Ethiopians and Somalis travel through Somaliland to Puntland or Djibouti en route to the Gulf States. Somaliland also serves as a destination for economic migrants and asylum seekers form Ethiopia. The arrest and detention of migrants is common as Somaliland authorities attempt to restrict the flow of migrants and decrease the amount of unauthorized foreigners residing in the territory.[1]

Undocumented people detained in Somaliland are usually held in police stations. Detention tends to last several days at most because Somaliland authorities do not have the resources to support long-term detention. Authorities seek to either deport intercepted migrants or transfer their care to the International Organization for Migration, which occasionally provides assistance to apprehended migrants in the territory. However, people intercepted in Loya’ada, a border town between Somaliland and Djibouti, face the possibility of unlimited detention depending on when they can be transported back to the Ethiopian border.[2]

Migrants have reportedly been detained at Loya’ada police station (based on its geographical location, on the border between Djibouti or Somaliland, it is unclear to which territory this facility rightly belongs). Conditions at this station, according to the Somaliland Mixed Migration Task Force, are very poor.[3] Migrants have also been detained at the Central Police Station in Hargeisa. One refugee who was detained at the Central Police Station told Human Rights Watch that six injured refugees detained there “had not received medical assistance for three days before they were released.”[4] The conditions in Somaliland’s prisons, where migrants are also likely detained, have been described as inhumane by the UN Independent Expert for Somalia.[5] Issues include a lack of water, sanitation, and ventilation. In 2013, Somaliland authorities permitted a Prison Conditions Management Committee that had been organized by the UN Development Programme to visit prisons. The UN Assistance Mission in Somalia’s Human Rights Unit has also been allowed to visit prisons.[6]

 

[1] Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat, Behind Bars: The Detention of Migrants in and from the East and Horn of Africa, 2015, http://www.regionalmms.org/.

[2] Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat, Behind Bars: The Detention of Migrants in and from the East and Horn of Africa, 2015, http://www.regionalmms.org/.

[3]  Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat, Behind Bars: The Detention of Migrants in and from the East and Horn of Africa, 2015, http://www.regionalmms.org/.

[4] Human Rights Watch, “Somaliland: Stop Deporting Ethiopian Refugees,” 4 September 2012, https://www.hrw.org/news/2012/09/04/somaliland-stop-deporting-ethiopian-refugees.

[5] UN Human Rights Council, “Report of the Independent Expert on the Situation of Human Rights in Somalia, Shamsul Bari,” United Nations, A/HRC/21/61, 22 August 2012, http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/RegularSession/Session21/A.HRC.21.61_en.pdf.

[6] U.S. Department of State, Somalia 2014 Human Rights Report, 2014, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236616.pdf.

IMMIGRATION AND DETENTION-RELATED STATISTICS

Total number of immigration detainees by year
Number of immigration detainees on a given day
Top nationalities of detainees
Number of persons granted alternatives to immigration detention
Number of detained asylum seekers
Total number of detained minors
Number of detained unaccompanied minors
Number of detained accompanied minors
Number of detained stateless persons
Number of apprehensions of non-citizens
Immigration detainees as a percentage of total international migrant population
Estimated total immigration detention capacity
Number of dedicated long-term immigration detention centres
Estimated capacity of dedicated long-term immigration detention centres
Number of dedicated medium-term immigration detention centres
Number of immigration offices
Number of transit facilities
Number of criminal facilities
Number of ad hoc facilities
Number of persons removed/returned (voluntary returns and deportations)
Number of deportations/forced returns only
Percentage of persons removed in relation to total number of people placed in removal procedures
Criminal prison population
Percentage of foreign prisoners
Prison population rate (per 100,000 of national population)
Population
International migrants
International migrants as a percentage of the population
Estimated number of undocumented migrants
Refugees
Ratio of refugees per 1000 inhabitants
Total number of new asylum applications
Refugee recognition rate
Stateless persons

SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDICATORS

Gross Domestic Product per capita (in USD)
Remittances to the country
Remittances from the country
Unemployment Rate
Unemployment rate amongst migrants
Net official development assistance (ODA) (in millions USD)
Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP)
Detention for deterrence
Pew Global Attitudes Poll on Immigration
Immigration Index Score
World Bank Rule of Law Index
Domestic Opinion Polls on Immigration

DOMESTIC LAWS AND POLICIES

Maximum length of detention for persons detained upon arrival at ports of entry
549
2013
Legal tradition
Constitutional guarantees?
Core pieces of national legislation
Additional legislation
Regulations, standards, guidelines
Immigration-status-related grounds
Non-immigration-status-related grounds providing for administrative detention in immigration legislation.
Does the country provide specific criminal penalties for immigration-related violations?
Grounds for criminal immigration-related detention/incarceration and maximum potential duration of incarceration
Has the country decriminalized immigration-related violations?
Maximum length for administrative immigration detention in law.
Longest recorded instance of immigration detention.
Maximum length of time in custody prior to issuance of a detention order
Average length of detention
Maximum length of detention for asylum-seekers
Provision of basic procedural standards
Types of non-custodial measures
Impact of alternatives
Is the detention of vulnerable persons provided in law? Are they detained in practice?
Mandatory detention
Expedited/fast track removal
Re-entry ban

INTERNATIONAL LAW

International treaties
Ratio of relevant international treaties ratified
International treaty reservations
Individual complaints procedure
Ratio of complaints procedures accepted
Treaty bodies decisions on individual complaints
Relevant recommendations issued by treaty bodies
Regional legal instruments
Regional treaty reservations
Regional judicial decisions on individual complaints
Recommendations issued by regional human rights mechanisms
Bilateral/multilateral agreements linked to readmission
Visits by special procedures of the Human Rights Council
Relevant recommendations by UN Special Procedures
Relevant recommendations of the UN Universal Periodic Review

INSTITUTIONAL INDICATORS

Detention Facility Management
Police (Government-local)
2012
Types of detention facilities used in practice
()
2015
Federal or centralized governing system
Centralized or decentralized immigration authority
Custodial authority
Apprehending authorities
Formally designated detention estate?
Authorized monitoring institutions
Is the national human rights institution (NHRI) recognized as independent?
Does NHRI carry out visits?
Does NHRI have capacity to receive complaints?
Does NHRI publicly release reports on immigration detention?
Does national preventive mechanism (NPM) carry out visits?
Does NPM have capacity to receive complaints?
Does NPM publicly release reports on immigration detention?
Do NGOs carry out visits?
NGO capacity to receive complaints?
Do NGOs publish reports on immigration detention?
Do parliamentary organs carry out visits?
Do parliamentary organs have capacity to receive complaints?
Do parliamentary organs publicly report on their detention findings?
Do internal inspection agencies (IIAs) carry out visits?
Do IIAs have capacity to receive complaints?
Do IIAs publicly report their findings from detention inspections?
Do international and/or regional bodies (IRBs) visit immigration-related detention facilities?
Do IRBs publicly report their findings from inspections?
Types of privatisation/outsourcing
Detention contractors and other non-state entities
Estimated annual budget for detention operations
Estimated annual budgets for particular detention-related activities
Estimated cost per detainees day (in USD)
Estimated annual budget for non-custodial measures (in USD)
Estimated costs of non-custodial measures (in USD)
Does the country receive external sources of funding?
Description of foreign assistance