Nigeria

Not Available

Immigration detainees

2019

No Data

Detained children

19,681

New asylum applications

2019

54,157

Refugees

2019

1,256,408

International migrants

2019

Overview

Types of facilities used for migration-related detention
Administrative Ad Hoc Criminal Unknown

20 May 2020

A Quarantine Facility Constructio Site in Pulka where 56014 People Live in Camps, (IOM,
A Quarantine Facility Constructio Site in Pulka where 56014 People Live in Camps, (IOM, "Nigeria: IOM Builds Quarantine Shelters as Conflict-Affected Borno State Records First COVID-19 Cases," 24 April 2020, https://www.iom.int/news/nigeria-iom-builds-quarantine-shelters-conflict-affected-borno-state-records-first-covid-19)

Amnesty International has warned about the potential spread of Covid-19 in the country’s overcrowded prisons and detention centres. It highlights the case of Kaduna Prison which although having a capacity of only 473 inmates, as of early April had “1,480 prisoners; while Enugu Maximum Security Prison with capacity for 638, now has 2,077 prisoners.”

In Kaduna Prison, two uprisings among inmates on 31 March and 3 April led to the death of 9 prisoners, leaving many injured. Panic related to the pandemic and sanitary conditions led to an escape attempt in Aba prison on 16 May, where one inmate was killed.

On 22 April, Nigeria’s President Buhari urged the chief judge to release prison inmates awaiting trial for more than six years, as well as elderly prisoners and those who are terminally ill. He stated that “42 percent of Nigeria's 74,000 or so prisoners were awaiting trial.” On 9 April, the government announced the upcoming release of 2,670 prisoners during the pandemic and on 15 May, the chief justice called for the speed up of the decongestion of custodial centres. However, immigration arrests are still being conducted during the pandemic, according to reports from 1 May.


Last updated:

ENFORCEMENT DATA

Total Detainees/ Stock & Flow (Year)
Not Available
2019
Criminal Prison Population (Year)
68,259
2017
53,841
2013
50,692
2011
40,240
2008
39,006
2005
40,048
2002
44,797
1999
52,000
1996
47,508
1992
Percentage of Foreign Prisoners (Year)
0.3
2014
Prison Population Rate (per 100,000 of National Population)
36
2017
32
2013
31
2011
27
2008
28
2005
31
2002
37
1999
46
1996
46
1992

POPULATION DATA

Population (Year)
206,100,000
2020
182,202,000
2015
International Migrants (Year)
1,256,408
2019
1,199,100
2015
International Migrants as Percentage of Population (Year)
0.7
2015
Refugees (Year)
54,157
2019
34,738
2018
1,922
2017
1,347
2016
1,395
2015
1,239
2014
Ratio of Refugees Per 1000 Inhabitants (Year)
0.01
2016
0.01
2014
New Asylum Applications (Year)
19,681
2019
206
2016
516
2014
Refugee Recognition Rate (Year)
45.1
2014
Stateless Persons (Year)
0
2016
0
2015

SOCIO-ECONOMIC DATA & POLLS

Gross Domestic Product per Capita (in USD)
3,203
2014
Remittances to the Country
20,921
2014
Unemployment Rate
2014
Net Official Development Assistance (ODA) (in Millions USD)
2,476.2
2014
Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP)
152 (Low)
2015
Pew Global Attitudes Poll on Immigration
74
2007

B. Attitudes and Perceptions

MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

LEGAL & REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

GROUNDS FOR MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

LENGTH OF MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION INSTITUTIONS

PROCEDURAL STANDARDS & SAFEGUARDS

DETENTION MONITORS

TRANSPARENCY

READMISSION/RETURN/EXTRADITION AGREEMENTS

COVID-19

HEALTH CARE

COVID-19 DATA

INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

International Treaties Ratified
Ratification Year
Observation Date
ICESCR, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
1993
2017
VCCR, Vienna Convention on Consular Relations
1968
2017
ICERD, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
1967
2017
ICCPR, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
1993
2017
CEDAW, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
1985
2017
CAT, Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
2001
2017
CRC, Convention on the Rights of the Child
1991
2017
ICRMW, International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
2009
2017
CRPD, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
2010
2017
ICPED, International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance
2009
2017
CRSR, Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
1967
2017
CRSSP, Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons
2011
2017
CTOCTP, Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children
2001
2017
CTOCSP, Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
2001
2017
OPCAT, Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
2009
2009
PCRSR, Protocol to the Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
1968
1968
Ratio of relevant international treaties ratified
Ratio: 16/19
Individual Complaints Procedures
Acceptance Year
CEDAW, Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, 1999 2004
2004
CRPD, Optional Protocol to o the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2010
2010
Ratio of Complaints Procedures Accepted
Observation Date
2/9
2017
Relevant Recommendations Issued by Treaty Bodies
Recommendation Year
Observation Date
Committee on Migrant Workers § 34. The Committee recommends that the State party: […] (b) Ensure that administrative detention is used only as a measure of last resort and that non-custodial alternatives are provided, in line with the Committee’s general comment No. 2 (2013) on the rights of migrant workers in an irregular situation and members of their families; (c) Cease the detention of children on the basis of their or their parents’ immigration status and adopt alternatives to detention that allow children to remain with family members and/or guardians in non-custodial, community-based contexts while their immigration status is being reviewed, in line with the principles of the best interests of the child and the child’s right to family life. 36. The Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Ensure that all migrant workers and members of their families, particularly those in detention, have recourse to consular support to protect the rights set out in the Convention; […] 2007
2007
2018

NON-TREATY-BASED INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISMS

Relevant Recommendations from the UN Universal Periodic Review
Observation Date
No 2009
2017
No 2013
2017

REGIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISMS

Regional Legal Instruments
Year of Ratification (Treaty) / Transposed (Directive) / Adoption (Regulation)
Observation Date
ACHPR, African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights 1983
1983
2017
ACRWC, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child 2001
2001
2017
APRW, Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (Maputo Protocol) 2004
2004
2017

GOVERNANCE SYSTEM

Legal Tradition(s)
Common law
2017
Muslim law
2017
Customary law
2017

DETENTION COSTS

OUTSOURCING

FOREIGN SOURCES OF FUNDING FOR DETENTION OPERATIONS