No detention centre mapping data


Kazakhstan Immigration Detention

Quick Facts


International migrants (2015): 3,546,800
New asylum applications (2016): 266

Centres List

No detention centres data available

Statistics Expand all



36,343

Criminal prison population

2017

  • Criminal prison population
NumberObservation Date
36,3432017
49,8212014
62,9972010
51,5382007
58,3002004
88,4212001
84,6571998
85,4481995
58,5191992


4.5

Percentage of foreign prisoners

2017

  • Percentage of foreign prisoners
PercentageObservation Date
4.52017


202

Prison population rate (per 100,000 of national population)

2017

  • Prison population rate (per 100,000 of national population)
NumberObservation Date
2022017
2902014
4012010
3362007
3862004
5902001
5481998
5341995
3581992



17,625,000

Population

2015

  • Population
NumberObservation Date
17,625,0002015


3,546,800

International migrants

2015

  • International migrants
NumberObservation Date
3,546,8002015


20.1

International migrants as a percentage of the population

2015

  • International migrants as a percentage of the population
PercentageObservation Date
20.12015


574

Refugees

2018

  • Refugees
NumberObservation Date
5742018
6082017
6472016
7082015
6332014


0.04

Ratio of refugees per 1000 inhabitants

2016

  • Ratio of refugees per 1000 inhabitants
NumberObservation Date
0.042016
0.042014


266

Total number of new asylum applications

2016

  • Total number of new asylum applications
NumberObservation Date
2662016
2882014


25.4

Refugee recognition rate

2014

  • Refugee recognition rate
NumberObservation Date
25.42014


7,690

Stateless persons

2018

  • Stateless persons
NumberObservation Date
7,6902018
8,1382017
8,4512016
7,0382015

Domestic Law Expand all

Legal tradition Show sources
NameObservation Date
Civil law2017

Constitutional guarantees? Show sources
Yes/NoConstitution and ArticlesYear AdoptedLast Year Amended
YesConstitution of Kazakhstan, Article 12(4): "4.Foreigners and stateless persons in the Republic shall enjoy rights and freedoms as well as bear responsibilities established for the citizens unless otherwise stipulated by the Constitution, laws and international treaties." Aricle 21 : "1. Everyone who has a legal right to stay on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall have the right to freely move about its territory and freely choose a place of residence except in cases stipulated by law. 2. Everyone shall have the right to leave the territory of the Republic. Citizens of the Republic shall have the right to freely return to the Republic."19952017
Core pieces of national legislation Show sources
NameYear AdoptedLast Year Amended
Code od Republic of Kazakhstan on administrative offences20142018

Average length of detention Show sources
Number of DaysObservation Date
10

Latest Update Show sources
Update StatusObservation Date
According to information submitted to the GDP by the International Legal Initiative (ILI), Kazakhstan has introduced a moratorium on new detention orders related to violations of migration legislation, and has temporarily ceased deportation proceedings. However, persons who commit other offences may still be placed in immigration detention, and no persons have been released. Meetings with lawyers, as well as relatives, have also been suspended. This system is due to remain in place until 10 July. While some detainees have been tested for Covid-19 (nine were confirmed to have the virus in Almaty), the ILI reports that not all detainees have had access to testing. In recent years, increasing numbers of migrants have entered Kazakhstan. Most come from Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan, and many enter the country in search of employment in the construction and agriculture sectors. Although the country is today believed to host some 3.5 million migrants, more than half of these are believed to be undocumented due to difficulties navigating the registration system after their temporary registration period elapses. Lacking official IDs and registration papers, undocumented migrants are vulnerable to arrest, detention, and deportation. According to the Central Asian Bueau for Analytical Reporting, although the government introduced unemployment benefits (100.42 USD per month) to help mitigate the economic effects of the lockdown, undocumented migrants cannot not access such payments. Without official IDs or residence permits, they may also not access key health services – and many have expressed fears that they will be arrested should they present themselves for testing or treatment. (Similar concerns about the lack of a “firewall” between health care and immigration authorities have been expressed by migrants and refugees in countries such as Germany (10 June update), Lebanon (2 June update) and South Africa (26 May update) during the pandemic.) According to several reports, a group of more than 230 Tajik migrants—including pregnant women and children—were trapped for two months at the country’s border with Uzbekistan, in a car park in the Turkestan region. The group were attempting to return to Tajikistan but were blocked by closed borders until 2 June, when authorities facilitated their return home.2020

International Law Expand all

International treaties Show sources
NameRatification Year
VCCR, Vienna Convention on Consular Relations1994
ICERD, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination1998
ICESCR, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights2006
ICCPR, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights2006
CEDAW, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women1998
CAT, Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment1998
CRC, Convention on the Rights of the Child1994
CRPD, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2015
ICPED, International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance2009
CRSR, Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees1999
CTOCTP, Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children2008
CTOCSP, Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime2008
OPCAT, Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment2008
Ratio of relevant international treaties ratified
  13/19
Individual complaints procedure Show sources
NameAcceptance Year
CAT, declaration under article 22 of the Convention2008
ICERD, declaration under article 14 of the Convention2008
ICCPR, First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 19662009
CEDAW, Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, 19992001
Ratio of complaints procedures accepted Show sources
NumberObservation Date
4/82017

Relevant recommendations of the UN Universal Periodic Review Show sources
Recomendation IssuedYear IssuedObservation Date
No20102017
No20142017

Institutions Expand all

Authorized monitoring institutions Show sources
InstitutionInstitution TypeObservation Date
Kazakhstan Commissioner for Human RightsNational Human Rights Institution (or Ombudsperson) (NHRI)2016
Is the national human rights institution (NHRI) recognized as independent? Show sources
Is the NHRI recognized as independent by the International Coordinating Committee of National Human Rights Institutions?Observation Date
No2016
Does NHRI have capacity to receive complaints? Show sources
Does NHRI have capacity to receive complaints?Observation Date
Yes2016

Socio Economic Data Expand all

Gross Domestic Product per capita (in USD) Show sources
Gross Domestic Product per capita (in USD)Observation Date
25.152018
12,6012014
Remittances to the country Show sources
Remittances to the country (in millions USD)Observation Date
8552018
2082014
Remittances from the country Show sources
Remittances from the country (in millions USD)Observation Date
1,0002018
Unemployment Rate Show sources
Unemployment RateObservation Date
2018
2014
Net official development assistance (ODA) (in millions USD) Show sources
Net official development assistance (ODA) (in USD)Observation Date
88.42014
Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP) Show sources
Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP)UNDP four-tiered rankingObservation Date
56High2015

Country Links


Additional Resources


Back To Top