Armenia

No Data

Immigration detainees

No Data

Detained children

17,970

Refugees

2018

3,000,000

Population

2020

Overview

Types of facilities used for migration-related detention
Administrative Ad Hoc Criminal Unknown

Related Reading

15 July 2020

Police Officer Standing Next to a Health Worker Taking a Person's Temperature, (Bloomberg,
Police Officer Standing Next to a Health Worker Taking a Person's Temperature, (Bloomberg, "Armenian Government Stabilizes COVID-19 Cases, but Structural Risk Factors Remain," The JamesTown Foundation, 30 March 2020, https://jamestown.org/program/armenian-government-stabilizes-covid-19-cases-but-structural-risk-factors-remain/)

On 15 July, the GDP received a response to our Covid-19 survey concerning Armenia from a representative of an international organisation who wished to remain anonymous. The official reported that the Armenian government had not established a moratorium on new immigration detention orders and was not considering one. The official indicated that Armenia does not operate an established immigration detention centre. The source explained that detainees in prisons are tested if it is suspected that they may have contracted Covid-19. Nonetheless, detainees are not routinely tested.

In a separate communication with the GDP, Mission Armenia, a local NGO, reported that people who enter the country in violation of border regulations “are transferred to common places of detention functioning within the country.” The country’s criminal code provides that individuals found crossing the state’s border without relevant documents or permits can be punished with imprisonment. However, this does not apply to people who enter the country seeking asylum. Asylum seekers are supposed to be accommodated in reception centres while they undergo refugee status determination procedures, where they receive food, hygiene items, and are not subjected to movement restrictions.

The anonymous source confirmed these details and added that many asylum seekers also apply for support with accommodation to the Migration Service or UNHCR partner NGO’s engaged in the provision of social assistance, or take care of accommodation by themselves. Mission Armenia nonetheless points out that as there sometimes are insufficient places available in reception centres, the NGO accommodates asylum seekers as well as non-nationals in deportation procedures.

The anonymous official said that currently, the Armenian government is developing a State Migration Management Strategy to regulate issues related to immigration detention, including building a dedicated immigration detention centre. The Armenian Ombudsman, however, has called on authorities to use “alternatives to detention,” echoing calls made by the Council of Europe’s Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment on 20 March.

As regards deportations, the source reported that they were not aware of any deportation cases among persons of concern since the declaration of the state of emergency by the Armenian government on 16 March 2020. On that date, the government declared a 30-day nationwide state of emergency. This was then prolonged four times and is now declared to be in place until 13 August. The state of emergency imposed movement restrictions, including travel to and from Armenia, particularly for non-citizens. At the same time, a non-citizen or stateless person can apply for asylum in Armenia during this period. However, upon entering the country s/he may undergo certain medical examinations and/or be placed in quarantine for 14 days. The Armenian Migration Service has created an online platform to submit asylum applications.


Last updated:

IMMIGRATION AND DETENTION-RELATED STATISTICS

Criminal prison population
4,873
2016
4,771
2013
Percentage of foreign prisoners
3.2
2015
2.6
2013
Prison population rate (per 100,000 of national population)
162
2016
160
2013
Population
3,000,000
2020
3,018,000
2015
International migrants
191,200
2015
International migrants as a percentage of the population
6.3
2015
Refugees
17,970
2018
17,972
2017
17,873
2016
19,319
2015
17,640
2014
Ratio of refugees per 1000 inhabitants
5.91
2016
5.87
2014
Total number of new asylum applications
127
2016
59
2014
Refugee recognition rate
100
2014
Stateless persons
848
2018
773
2017
512
2016
238
2015
Total number of immigration detainees by year
Number of immigration detainees on a given day
Top nationalities of detainees
Number of persons granted alternatives to immigration detention
Number of detained asylum seekers
Total number of detained minors
Number of detained unaccompanied minors
Number of detained accompanied minors
Number of detained stateless persons
Number of apprehensions of non-citizens
Immigration detainees as a percentage of total international migrant population
Estimated total immigration detention capacity
Number of dedicated long-term immigration detention centres
Estimated capacity of dedicated long-term immigration detention centres
Number of dedicated medium-term immigration detention centres
Number of immigration offices
Number of transit facilities
Number of criminal facilities
Number of ad hoc facilities
Number of persons removed/returned (voluntary returns and deportations)
Number of deportations/forced returns only
Percentage of persons removed in relation to total number of people placed in removal procedures
Estimated number of undocumented migrants

SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDICATORS

Gross Domestic Product per capita (in USD)
3,873
2014
Remittances to the country
2,159
2014
Unemployment Rate
2014
Net official development assistance (ODA) (in millions USD)
265.3
2014
Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP)
85 (High)
2015
Remittances from the country
Unemployment rate amongst migrants
Detention for deterrence
Pew Global Attitudes Poll on Immigration
Immigration Index Score
World Bank Rule of Law Index
Domestic Opinion Polls on Immigration

DOMESTIC LAWS AND POLICIES

Legal tradition
Civil law
2017
Is the detention of vulnerable persons provided in law? Are they detained in practice?
Accompanied minors () No
2015
Constitutional guarantees?
Core pieces of national legislation
Additional legislation
Regulations, standards, guidelines
Immigration-status-related grounds
Non-immigration-status-related grounds providing for administrative detention in immigration legislation.
Does the country provide specific criminal penalties for immigration-related violations?
Grounds for criminal immigration-related detention/incarceration and maximum potential duration of incarceration
Has the country decriminalized immigration-related violations?
Maximum length for administrative immigration detention in law.
Longest recorded instance of immigration detention.
Maximum length of time in custody prior to issuance of a detention order
Average length of detention
Maximum length of detention for asylum-seekers
Maximum length of detention for persons detained upon arrival at ports of entry
Provision of basic procedural standards
Types of non-custodial measures
Impact of alternatives
Mandatory detention
Expedited/fast track removal
Re-entry ban

INTERNATIONAL LAW

Individual complaints procedure
Acceptance Year
ICPED, International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance, declaration under article 31 2011
2011
ICCPR, First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966 1993
1993
CEDAW, Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, 1999 2006
2006
ICCPR, First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966 1993
1993
Ratio of complaints procedures accepted
Observation Date
4/8
2017
Relevant recommendations issued by treaty bodies
Recommendation Year
Committee against Torture 42. The State party should: (a) Ensure that the exemption from criminal responsibility for irregular border crossing for refugees and asylum seekers is strictly enforced in practice and refrain from detaining refugees and asylum seekers on this ground; (b) Establish a legal basis for regularizing the stay of individuals who are eligible to benefit from protection against refoulement under international human rights law but do not fall under the definition of refugee contained in the Law on Refugees and Asylum; (c) Develop and implement a comprehensive mechanism to ensure the rights of persons in penitentiary institutions who may be in need of international protection to access asylum procedures, and address, as a matter of priority, the substandard conditions of detention. 2017
2017
Regional legal instruments
Year of Ratification (Treaty) / Transposed (Directive) / Adoption (Regulation)
CATHB, Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings 2008
2008
ECHRP7, Protocol 7 to the European Convention on Human Rights (amended by protocol 11) 2002
2002
ECHRP12, Protocol 12 to the European Convention on Human Rights 2004
2004
ECPT, European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment of Punishment 2002
2002
ECHR, Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (commonly known as the European Convention on Human Rights 2002
2002
ECHRP1, Protocol 1 to the European Convention on Human Rights (amended by protocol 11) 2002
2002
Bilateral/multilateral agreements linked to readmission
Year in Force
Observation Date
Bulgaria 2009
2009
2017
Czech Republic 2011
2011
2017
Denmark 2004
2004
2017
Germany 2008
2008
2017
Norway 2010
2010
2017
Lithuania 2004
2004
2017
Sweden 2009
2009
2017
Switzerland 2005
2005
2017
Belarus 2001
2001
2017
Russian Federation 2011
2011
2017
Ukraine 1997
1997
2017
EU 2014
2014
2017
Relevant recommendations of the UN Universal Periodic Review
Observation Date
No 2010
2017
No 2015
2017
Ratio of relevant international treaties ratified
International treaty reservations
Treaty bodies decisions on individual complaints
Regional treaty reservations
Regional judicial decisions on individual complaints
Recommendations issued by regional human rights mechanisms
Visits by special procedures of the Human Rights Council
Relevant recommendations by UN Special Procedures

INSTITUTIONAL INDICATORS

Types of detention facilities used in practice
()
2015
()
2015
Federal or centralized governing system
Centralized or decentralized immigration authority
Custodial authority
Apprehending authorities
Detention Facility Management
Formally designated detention estate?
Authorized monitoring institutions
Is the national human rights institution (NHRI) recognized as independent?
Does NHRI carry out visits?
Does NHRI have capacity to receive complaints?
Does NHRI publicly release reports on immigration detention?
Does national preventive mechanism (NPM) carry out visits?
Does NPM have capacity to receive complaints?
Does NPM publicly release reports on immigration detention?
Do NGOs carry out visits?
NGO capacity to receive complaints?
Do NGOs publish reports on immigration detention?
Do parliamentary organs carry out visits?
Do parliamentary organs have capacity to receive complaints?
Do parliamentary organs publicly report on their detention findings?
Do internal inspection agencies (IIAs) carry out visits?
Do IIAs have capacity to receive complaints?
Do IIAs publicly report their findings from detention inspections?
Do international and/or regional bodies (IRBs) visit immigration-related detention facilities?
Do IRBs publicly report their findings from inspections?
Types of privatisation/outsourcing
Detention contractors and other non-state entities
Estimated annual budget for detention operations
Estimated annual budgets for particular detention-related activities
Estimated cost per detainees day (in USD)
Estimated annual budget for non-custodial measures (in USD)
Estimated costs of non-custodial measures (in USD)
Does the country receive external sources of funding?
Description of foreign assistance