Ghana

Not Available

Immigration detainees

2019

Not Available

Detained children

2017

490

New asylum applications

2019

11,946

Refugees

2019

466,780

International migrants

2019

Overview

Types of facilities used for migration-related detention
Administrative Ad Hoc Criminal Unknown

Related Reading

09 September 2020

A. Abu-bashal, “Ghana pardons 794 prisoners to curb spread of COVID-19,” Anadolu Agency, 3 July 2020, https://www.aa.com.tr/en/africa/ghana-pardons-794-prisoners-to-curb-spread-of-covid-19/1898022
A. Abu-bashal, “Ghana pardons 794 prisoners to curb spread of COVID-19,” Anadolu Agency, 3 July 2020, https://www.aa.com.tr/en/africa/ghana-pardons-794-prisoners-to-curb-spread-of-covid-19/1898022

As of mid-2020, Ghana was hosting more than 12,000 registered refugees and some 400,000 migrants. The online African peace research platform Kujenga Amani reported that Ghana was “slow to recognise the scale of risks posed by restrictive measures such as a partial lockdown, stay at home and border closure, to vulnerable groups in society.” As a result, Ghana’s migrant and refugee communities, already adversely affected by socio-economic exclusion, have faced even harsher challenges during the Covid-19 crisis.

Although the Global Detention Project has not identified dedicated immigration detention sites in the country, Ghana has emphasised immigration control measures in its policy statements. After the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic, the government threatened to deport non-nationals who test positive for the disease. However, as of writing, the government does not appear to have followed through on these threats. According to media reports, for Guinean and Burkina Faso nationals, repatriation was halted due to the lack of cooperation from their respective governments. Nevertheless, the threats of deportation have caused panic among refugees and migrants, some of whom have reportedly fled isolation centres or refused offers for medical treatment.

On 17 March, prison visits were limited to one per prisoner, once per week, and two-week isolation was implemented for every new prisoner. In 2019, the country’s 44 prisons had on average a 155 percent occupancy rate. This overcrowding was denounced on 26 June by the POS foundation, which urged the government to release prisoners who had committed minor non-violent offences. The President of Ghana had pardoned 1,602 prisoners by 2 July, as a measure to reduce the overcrowding in prisons. However, several prisoners have reportedly tested positive to Covid-19 in Accra, Tamale, and Kumasi prisons. In Tamale prison, prisoners and prison staff were being randomly tested back in May, but there does not seem to be any national plan to implement sanitary measures in prisons.


Last updated:

ENFORCEMENT DATA

Total Migration Detainees: Flow + Stock (year)
Not Available
2019
Total Number of Children Placed in Immigration Detention (Year)
Not Available
2017
Criminal Prison Population (Year)
13,068
2017
14,416
2014
13,507
2010
13,335
2007
11,581
2004
10,444
2001
8,364
1998
7,727
1995
Percentage of Foreign Prisoners (Year)
6.8
2017
4.5
2009
Prison Population Rate (per 100,000 of National Population)
47
2017
55
2014
55
2010
59
2007
55
2004
53
2001
46
1998
45
1995

POPULATION DATA

Population (Year)
31,100,000
2020
27,410,000
2015
International Migrants (Year)
466,780
2019
399,500
2015
International Migrants as Percentage of Population (Year)
1.5
2015
Refugees (Year)
11,946
2019
11,899
2018
12,156
2017
11,851
2016
17,406
2015
18,450
2014
Ratio of Refugees Per 1000 Inhabitants (Year)
0.42
2016
0.69
2014
New Asylum Applications (Year)
490
2019
1,159
2016
1,043
2014
Refugee Recognition Rate (Year)
96.5
2014
Stateless Persons (Year)
0
2016
0
2015

SOCIO-ECONOMIC DATA & POLLS

Gross Domestic Product per Capita (in USD)
1,441
2014
Remittances to the Country
126
2014
Unemployment Rate
2014
Net Official Development Assistance (ODA) (in Millions USD)
1,116.4
2014
Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP)
140 (Medium)
2016
Pew Global Attitudes Poll on Immigration
71
2007

B. Attitudes and Perceptions

MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

LEGAL & REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

GROUNDS FOR MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

Children & Other Vulnerable Groups
Unaccompanied minors No
2019

LENGTH OF MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION INSTITUTIONS

PROCEDURAL STANDARDS & SAFEGUARDS

DETENTION MONITORS

TRANSPARENCY

READMISSION/RETURN/EXTRADITION AGREEMENTS

COVID-19

HEALTH CARE

COVID-19 DATA

INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

International Treaties Ratified
Ratification Year
Observation Date
VCCR, Vienna Convention on Consular Relations
1963
2017
ICERD, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
1966
2017
ICESCR, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
2000
2017
ICCPR, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
2000
2017
CEDAW, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
1986
2017
CAT, Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
2009
2017
CRC, Convention on the Rights of the Child
1990
2017
ICRMW, International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
2000
2017
CRPD, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
2012
2017
CRSR, Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
1963
2017
CTOCSP, Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
2012
2017
CTOCTP, Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children
2012
2017
OPCAT, Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
2016
2016
Ratio of relevant international treaties ratified
Ratio: 13/19
Individual Complaints Procedures
Acceptance Year
ICCPR, First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966 2000
2000
CAT, declaration under article 22 of the Convention 2000
2000
CRPD, Optional Protocol to o the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2012
2012
Ratio of Complaints Procedures Accepted
Observation Date
3/8
2017
Relevant Recommendations Issued by Treaty Bodies
Recommendation Year
Observation Date
Committee on Migrant Workers "the committee recalls that administrative detention should only be used as a last resort, and recommends that the state party consider alternatives to administrative detention. it further recommends that the state party: (a) include in its second periodic report detailed disaggregated information on the number of migrant workers detained for immigration offences and the place, average duration and conditions of their detention; (b) ensure that migrant workers detained for violations of immigration law are held in special facilities, separately from ordinary prisoners; (c) provide updated information, including disaggregated statistics, on the numbers of expulsions as well as the procedures used; (d) ensure that the minimum guarantees enshrined in the convention are assured with regard to criminal or administrative charges against migrant workers and members of their families." 2014
2014
2017

NON-TREATY-BASED INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISMS

Relevant Recommendations from the UN Universal Periodic Review
Observation Date
No 2008
2017
No 2012
2017

REGIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISMS

Regional Legal Instruments
Year of Ratification (Treaty) / Transposed (Directive) / Adoption (Regulation)
Observation Date
ACHPR, African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights 1989
1989
2017
ACRWC, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child 2005
2005
2017
APRW, Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (Maputo Protocol) 2007
2007
2017

GOVERNANCE SYSTEM

Legal Tradition(s)
Common law
2017
Customary law
2017

DETENTION COSTS

OUTSOURCING

FOREIGN SOURCES OF FUNDING FOR DETENTION OPERATIONS