Albania

No Data

Immigration detainees

6

Detained children

2017

131

Refugees

2018

2,900,000

Population

2020

Overview

Types of facilities used for migration-related detention
Administrative Ad Hoc Criminal Unknown

Related Reading

15 May 2020

The Gates of the National Centre for Asylum Seekers in Babrru, Tirana, (Vladimir Karaj,
The Gates of the National Centre for Asylum Seekers in Babrru, Tirana, (Vladimir Karaj, "Violence and Hunger Stalk: Refugees and Migrants in Albania," Balkan Insight, 6 May 2020, https://balkaninsight.com/2020/05/06/violence-and-hunger-stalk-refugees-and-migrants-in-albania/)

The numbers of migrants and refugees in Albania have risen in recent years. According to the Department of Border and Migration, 11,344 people were detained at the border between January 2019 and February 2020.

The Euro-Med Monitor called on the government of Albania ‘’to immediately undertake necessary measures to provide adequate housing and sufficient food supplies to refugees and migrants in its custody, in addition to ensuring their safety from gang violence.’’

The imposition of a curfew on 16 March has impacted undocumented migrants across the country. Refugee centres have been closed, and migrants and asylum seekers left outside, looking for food.

There were 876 confirmed cases of Covid-19 as of 13 May in the country.

On 4 March, the Albanian government announced the temporary release of around 600 prisoners for 3 months. This measure concerns inmates held for minor offences, as well as the elderly and individuals suffering from chronic diseases. There is an estimate of 5,500 prisoners in Albania, whose penitentiaries are overcrowded.

On 10 April, a group of more than 30 human rights organisations issued an open letter to the government protesting a plan to imprison individuals who disobey quarantine orders. The penal code was indeed amended on 16 April to impose two to eight years of jail time for rule-breakers.

19 inmates tested positive to Covid-19 on 20 April, and were isolated immediately. The Tirana penitentiary hospital had been dedicated exclusively to inmates who tested positive to the coronavirus.


Last updated: October 2016

IMMIGRATION AND DETENTION-RELATED STATISTICS

Total number of detained minors
6
2017
16
2016
8
2015
Criminal prison population
5,564
2017
5,201
2013
Percentage of foreign prisoners
1.4
2017
1.5
2012
Prison population rate (per 100,000 of national population)
193
2017
181
2013
Population
2,900,000
2020
2,873,460
2017
2,897,000
2015
International migrants
52,000
2017
57,600
2015
International migrants as a percentage of the population
1.8
2017
2
2015
Refugees
131
2018
119
2017
111
2016
104
2015
104
2014
Ratio of refugees per 1000 inhabitants
0.05
2016
0.04
2014
Total number of new asylum applications
2,161
2016
427
2014
Stateless persons
4,160
2018
4,460
2017
4,921
2016
7,443
2015
Total number of immigration detainees by year
Number of immigration detainees on a given day
Top nationalities of detainees
Number of persons granted alternatives to immigration detention
Number of detained asylum seekers
Number of detained unaccompanied minors
Number of detained accompanied minors
Number of detained stateless persons
Number of apprehensions of non-citizens
Immigration detainees as a percentage of total international migrant population
Estimated total immigration detention capacity
Number of dedicated long-term immigration detention centres
Estimated capacity of dedicated long-term immigration detention centres
Number of dedicated medium-term immigration detention centres
Number of immigration offices
Number of transit facilities
Number of criminal facilities
Number of ad hoc facilities
Number of persons removed/returned (voluntary returns and deportations)
Number of deportations/forced returns only
Percentage of persons removed in relation to total number of people placed in removal procedures
Estimated number of undocumented migrants
Refugee recognition rate

SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDICATORS

Gross Domestic Product per capita (in USD)
4,537.86
2017
4,564
2014
Remittances to the country
1,118,000
2015
Unemployment Rate
2017
2014
2013
Unemployment rate amongst migrants
80
2013
Net official development assistance (ODA) (in millions USD)
168,530,000
2016
280.1
2014
Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP)
68 (High)
2017
85 (High)
2015
World Bank Rule of Law Index
39 (-0.4)
2017
Remittances from the country
Detention for deterrence
Pew Global Attitudes Poll on Immigration
Immigration Index Score
Domestic Opinion Polls on Immigration

DOMESTIC LAWS AND POLICIES

Legal tradition
Civil law
2017
Core pieces of national legislation
Law on Asylum in the Republic of Albania. Law No. 8432. 1998. (1998)
1998
Is the detention of vulnerable persons provided in law? Are they detained in practice?
Asylum seekers (Provided) Yes
2015
Unaccompanied minors (Provided)
2015
Constitutional guarantees?
Additional legislation
Regulations, standards, guidelines
Immigration-status-related grounds
Non-immigration-status-related grounds providing for administrative detention in immigration legislation.
Does the country provide specific criminal penalties for immigration-related violations?
Grounds for criminal immigration-related detention/incarceration and maximum potential duration of incarceration
Has the country decriminalized immigration-related violations?
Maximum length for administrative immigration detention in law.
Longest recorded instance of immigration detention.
Maximum length of time in custody prior to issuance of a detention order
Average length of detention
Maximum length of detention for asylum-seekers
Maximum length of detention for persons detained upon arrival at ports of entry
Provision of basic procedural standards
Types of non-custodial measures
Impact of alternatives
Mandatory detention
Expedited/fast track removal
Re-entry ban

INTERNATIONAL LAW

Individual complaints procedure
Acceptance Year
ICCPR, First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966 2007
2007
CEDAW, Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, 1999 2003
2003
ICPED, International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance, declaration under article 31 2007
2007
CRC, [Third] Optional Protocol to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child establishing a communications procedure, 2011 2013
2013
Ratio of complaints procedures accepted
Observation Date
4/9
2017
Relevant recommendations issued by treaty bodies
Recommendation Year
Human Rights Committee 13. The Committee is concerned that the automatic detention until deportation of all persons entering the country irregularly, including minors, and the lack of adequate information and referral of asylum seekers among such persons to the asylum procedure, exposes persons in need of international protection to a high risk of refoulement. The Committee is also concerned at the poor living conditions in transit reception facilities for asylum seekers and refugees (arts. 6, 7, 9 and 10). The State party should ensure proper implementation of pre-screening procedures at the border and inside the country in order to ensure that persons in need of international protection are identified and referred to the asylum procedure, regardless of whether or not they entered the country in an irregular manner. It should refrain from detaining asylum seekers on the basis of the manner of entry into the country. It should improve living conditions in transit reception facilities. 2013
2013
Regional legal instruments
Year of Ratification (Treaty) / Transposed (Directive) / Adoption (Regulation)
CATHB, Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings 2007
2007
CPCSE, Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse 2009
2009
ECHRP7, Protocol 7 to the European Convention on Human Rights (amended by protocol 11) 1996
1996
ECHRP12, Protocol 12 to the European Convention on Human Rights 2004
2004
ECPT, European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment of Punishment 1996
1996
ECHR, Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (commonly known as the European Convention on Human Rights 1996
1996
ECHRP1, Protocol 1 to the European Convention on Human Rights (amended by protocol 11) 1996
1996
Bilateral/multilateral agreements linked to readmission
Year in Force
Observation Date
Austria 2007
2007
2017
Germany 2003
2003
2017
Belgium 2008
2008
2017
Bulgaria 2003
2003
2017
Denmark 2008
2008
2017
Greece 1995
1995
2017
Italy 2008
2008
2017
Hungary 2010
2010
2017
Luxembourg 2008
2008
2017
Malta 2011
2011
2017
Romania 2005
2005
2017
Spain 2011
2011
2017
Norway 2009
2009
2017
Slovakia 2010
2010
2017
Slovenia 2011
2011
2017
Netherlands 2008
2008
2017
United Kingdom 2005
2005
2017
Iceland 2010
2010
2017
Switzerland 2003
2003
2017
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2010
2010
2017
Croatia 2005
2005
2017
Macedonia 2005
2005
2017
Kosovo 2010
2010
2017
Moldova 2013
2013
2017
Montenegro 2011
2011
2017
Serbia 2011
2011
2017
Albania (EU agreement) 2006
2006
2006
Visits by special procedures of the Human Rights Council
Year of Visit
Observation Date
Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants 2011
2011
2011
Relevant recommendations of the UN Universal Periodic Review
Observation Date
No 2010
2017
Yes 2014
2017
Ratio of relevant international treaties ratified
International treaty reservations
Treaty bodies decisions on individual complaints
Regional treaty reservations
Regional judicial decisions on individual complaints
Recommendations issued by regional human rights mechanisms
Relevant recommendations by UN Special Procedures

INSTITUTIONAL INDICATORS

Apprehending authorities
Border Patrol ()
2015
Police ()
2014
Types of detention facilities used in practice
Yes () Yes
2015
()
2015
Authorized monitoring institutions
Office of the People's Advocate (Avokati i Popullit) (National Human Rights Institution (or Ombudsperson) (NHRI))
2016
Office of the People's Advocate (Avokati i Popullit) (OPCAT National Preventive Mechanism (NPM))
2016
Is the national human rights institution (NHRI) recognized as independent?
Yes
2016
Does NHRI carry out visits?
Yes
2016
Does NHRI have capacity to receive complaints?
Yes
2016
Does NHRI publicly release reports on immigration detention?
Yes
2015
Does national preventive mechanism (NPM) carry out visits?
Yes
2015
Does NPM publicly release reports on immigration detention?
Yes
2015
Does the country receive external sources of funding?
Yes
2010
Description of foreign assistance
According to a EU Parliament question to the EU Commission (March 2013): During his visit to Albania in December 2011, the UN Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Migrants expressed his concern about the closed detention centre in Kareç. The Kareç closed detention centre, which opened in 2010, was constructed primarily with funding from the European Union. The issues of accessibility, detention conditions, legal safeguards in law and practice and the treatment of detainees, which are explicitly mentioned in the UN Special Rapporteur’s report, are therefore particularly worrying. The report mentions, in particular: the ‘bad road conditions, which seriously obstruct the enjoyment of detainees’ right to legal defence and independent monitoring by national and international bodies’; the centre’s infrastructure and organisation; the poor living and hygienic conditions, such as cold and humidity and the lack of outdoor facilities or activities, which recall those of ‘a mid‐ to high-security prison’; the internal regulations, which contain provisions allowing the presence of ‘minors’ in the centre; and the lack of adequate information in a language commonly spoken by detainees about their rights and the reasons for their detention. Taking into account the readmission agreement between Albania and the EU, which entered into force on 1 May 2006 and presupposes full respect of human rights and fundamental freedoms, on what basis was this detention centre funded by the EU? Did the Commission have any say in the architectural planning and internal regulation of the centre? Is the Commission aware of the situation described above? If so, what steps has it taken to remedy the situation? If not, what concrete steps will it take now?
2013
Federal or centralized governing system
Centralized or decentralized immigration authority
Custodial authority
Detention Facility Management
Formally designated detention estate?
Does NPM have capacity to receive complaints?
Do NGOs carry out visits?
NGO capacity to receive complaints?
Do NGOs publish reports on immigration detention?
Do parliamentary organs carry out visits?
Do parliamentary organs have capacity to receive complaints?
Do parliamentary organs publicly report on their detention findings?
Do internal inspection agencies (IIAs) carry out visits?
Do IIAs have capacity to receive complaints?
Do IIAs publicly report their findings from detention inspections?
Do international and/or regional bodies (IRBs) visit immigration-related detention facilities?
Do IRBs publicly report their findings from inspections?
Types of privatisation/outsourcing
Detention contractors and other non-state entities
Estimated annual budget for detention operations
Estimated annual budgets for particular detention-related activities
Estimated cost per detainees day (in USD)
Estimated annual budget for non-custodial measures (in USD)
Estimated costs of non-custodial measures (in USD)