Angola

Not Available

Immigration detainees

2019

Not Available

Detained children

2017

45

New asylum applications

2019

25,793

Refugees

2019

669,479

International migrants

2019

Overview

(June 2016) Angola has vigorously pursued a policy of expelling undocumented migrants for “national security” reasons, claiming that there are more than half a million people in the country illegally who are part of a “silent invasion.” The country has opened several dedicated immigration facilities, where thousands of non-nationals are detained every year to await removal, often in extremely degrading and violent conditions.

Types of facilities used for migration-related detention
Administrative Ad Hoc Criminal Unknown

14 August 2020

A Dormitory inside the Trinta Detention Centre for Foreigners, east of Luanda, (France 24,
A Dormitory inside the Trinta Detention Centre for Foreigners, east of Luanda, (France 24, "C'est une Prison: Le Cri d'Alarme d'un Rwandais dans un Centre pour Etrangers en Angola," 8 May 2019, https://observers.france24.com/fr/20190508-angola-prison-centre-detention-etrangers-rwandais)

According to UNHCR, as of mid-2020 there were 80,698 refugees and asylum seekers in the country. Angola had 1,762 cases of COVID-19 as of 13 August, however there is little information about whether infections have been detected among the country’s refugee population. In late May, after a 60-day state of emergency, the government began loosening some public restrictions as part of a “State of Calamity” declaration. The country has subsequently experienced a sharp rise in cases, going from less than 100 cases in May to nearly 2,000 by August.

There appears to have been no public announcement about specific measures to protect asylum seekers and migrants, including those in detention centres. In the past, the GDP has identified various facilities that appear to be used largely for detaining migrants, asylum seekers, or other foreigners as part of immigration enforcement measures. However, the most recent reports about these centres date back several years. In 2017, the UNHCR reported that it was blocked from visiting detention centres. That same year, the Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Migrants released a report denouncing the conditions and length of detention in the facilities.

The country has announced measures taken in prisons. As part of the state of emergency put in place in late March, the country temporarily suspended prison visits. On 5 May, after Angola had released some 1,900 people from pre-trial detention, Human Rights Watch denounced what it regarded as insufficient measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in prisons. While on the one hand, measures were taken to reduce the overcrowding in penitentiary facilities, on the other, individuals were arrested and detained (around 300 people as of 1 May) for violating state of emergency rules. HRW called out the government for continuing to detain “hundreds of people in custody for low-level crimes, leading to a daily influx of new detainees. If not appropriately quarantined and monitored for Covid-19, these new arrivals could contribute to an outbreak in the prison system that prison authorities are ill-equipped to treat.” In a 11 August monthly report, the police said that more than 4,100 people had been detained in the past month.


Last updated: June 2016

Angola Immigration Detention Profile

    Last Updated: June 2016

     

    INTRODUCTION

    Since the end of its three-decades-long civil war in the early 2000s, Angola has pursued a policy of expelling undocumented migrants for “national security” reasons. To assist this effort, the country has opened several dedicated immigration facilities, where thousands of non-nationals are detained every year to await removal, often in extremely degrading and violent conditions.[1] Authorities have also worked to ramp up fear of foreigners, claiming that there are more than half a million people in the country illegally who are part of a “silent invasion.”[2]

    Many migrants living in Angola, especially Muslims from West Africa, have been subject to repeated attacks and arbitrary arrests linked to ethnic and religious discrimination. In 2012, Human Rights Watch reported on human rights violations by Angolan authorities against migrants in custody and during expulsion proceedings.[3] Several sources have claimed that security forces abuse irregular migrants, mostly in the border region shared with the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).[4][5]

    In 2013, the UN Human Rights Committee and the Committee on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women reported on abuses suffered by foreigners in Angola.[6] In 2012, the Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants sent a communication concerning alleged mass deportations of migrants and serious violations of their human rights during expulsion. He also reported the deaths of four people who had been detained by Angolan authorities while awaiting deportation.[7] In 2014, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights stated that Angola “had a right to deport irregular migrants, but must do so humanely and in full compliance with international human rights laws and standards.”[8]

     

    LAWS, POLICIES, PRACTICES

    Angola adopted the Law Regulating the Legal Status of Foreigners in 2007, which was last amended in 2011.[9] The Foreigners Law provides a legal framework for immigration control including grounds for immigration-related detention. The Angolan Constitution also contains relevant provisions—including on the freedom of internal movement, foreign travel, emigration, and repatriation—although the government has at times restricted these constitutional rights.[10]

    Under the Foreigners Law, detention is compulsory when foreign nationals are denied entry (Art. 18-19) or when they are subject to judicial expulsion after being found to be undocumented or present illegally in national territory (Art.104).[11] In both cases, irregular migrants are detained prior to their removal from Angola to their country of origin or of habitual residence. This expulsion includes a period of not less than five years during which the foreign is banned from re- entering national territory.[12]

    Alternatively, the Expatriate and Migration Services (SME), under the Interior Ministry’s authority, can notify foreign nationals in an irregular situation to leave Angolan territory within eight days.[13] If they are found on the territory after this period has ended, they can be detained prior to removal.

    The Foreigners Law contains provisions for the judicial review of expulsion decisions.[14] Appeals against decisions of the SME are brought before the Ministry of the Interior. However, the possibility for judicial review is restricted as the administration of justice is concentrated in the Interior Ministry only and judges are not involved in verifying the lawfulness of detention. In 2013, the UN Human Rights Committee expressed concern that undocumented migrants may be subjected to detention without recourse to a court to pronounce on the legality of the detention. Consequently, migrants are often arrested arbitrarily and denied due process to challenge their deportation.[15]

    The time limit for enforcement of an expulsion order is 15 days for resident foreigners and eight days for non-residents.[16] This time limit must correspond to the maximum length of detention. However, thousand cases where reported by non-governmental sources in which authorities kept immigrants in detention for periods exceeding those provided by law without charges or trial.[17]

    The Foreigners Law empowers the SME to enforce immigration law. The SME is the central executive body of the Interior Ministry responsible for promoting and coordinating the actions relating to access, control, transit, stay, detention and exit of foreigners. It operates all immigration detention facilities except Temporary Stay Centres managed by airport operators and run in accordance with regulations to be approved by the Ministers of the Interior and Transports.[18] Border security and the expulsion procedures are under the responsibility of the Angolan Armed Forces (FAA).[19]

    Angolan authorities launch massive crackdowns on immigrants several times a year, which lead to the arrest and expulsion of hundreds and sometimes thousands of people. According to press accounts, the SME has claimed that authorities expel more than a thousand migrants a week and that there are more than half a million undocumented migrants in the country.[20] According to the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, there were only 106,800 international migrants in the country as of 2015, which represent 0.4 percent of its population.[21]

    Non-governmental sources report that vulnerable migrants—including asylum-seekers, pregnant women and minors—are placed in administrative immigration detention.[22] During a 2014 session of the UN Universal Periodic Review, the Committee on the Rights of the Child raised concerns about the deportation of more than 30,000 children from Angola.[23] Also, while the country is a party to the 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has reported the systematic detention of asylum-seekers without any consideration of alternatives measures.[24]

    A new law on Asylum and Refugee Status, which entered into force in June 2015, provides specific procedures for the submission of an asylum application and establishes the creation of reception centres for asylum-seekers.[25] The Foreigners Law also provides safeguards against the expulsion of refugees to countries “where they may be persecuted for political, racial or religious reasons, or where their lives may be in danger.”[26]

    Angolan authorities criminalise the entry or residence of any person who illegally on national territory. Irregular entry and stay can be punishable by fines of up to 1,500 USD.[27]

     

    DETENTION INFRASTRUCTURE

    It is not clear how many or what types of facilities Angola operates for the purposes of immigration-related detention. Since 2012, the increased number of expulsions has encouraged Angolan security forces and the SME to use temporary detention facilities exclusively for migrants.[28] In 2015, non-governmental sources reported the presence of seven detention or transit centres dedicated to irregular migrants in various parts of the country.[29]

    The main detention centre dedicated for non-nationals found undocumented on national territory is the “Illegal Foreigners Detention Centre,” which opened in 2011 in Viana, not far from the Angolan capital Luanda. The facility has a reported capacity of 800 with separate facilities for men and women.

    The Trinita Detention Centre is also dedicated for immigration-related detention. This facility was used in 2014 to detain hundreds of non-Angolan people who were arrested in the streets of Luanda in December 2014. Governmental sources reported that 2,161 people were stopped by the police in one week, and 884 who did not have proper documentation were arrested and detained at the Trinita Detention Centre. These massive crackdowns were condemned by human rights’ organizations who urged Angolan authorities to put an end to the repeated stigmatization and violations of human rights, especially against people from West Africa.[30]

    Foreigners who are denied entry can be “accommodated” at the Temporary Stay Centre at the Luanda airport as they await flights. These detainees face a high risk of refoulement as they are not guaranteed international protection procedures.[31]

    The press has also reported the use of police stations to confine irregular migrants prior to removal.[32]

    Numerous concerns have been raised concerning detention conditions and the mistreatment of migrants while in custody. Detainees at the Illegal Foreigners Detention Centre in Viana have suffered from a lack of sufficient water supply as well as poor diet.[33] NGOs have also stated that foreigners have been denied contact with the outside world, including legal assistance. The same conditions were found in Trinita Detention Centre, where detainees are reportedly kept in cruel, inhumane and degrading conditions. Acts of torture and extortion of money have also been reported.[34]

    Non-governmental sources reported improvements concerning the access to detention centres in Angola. The International Committee of the Red Cross is entitled to carry visits to migrants in detention to monitor their treatments and living conditions.[35] In 2013, the SME also agreed to allow UNHCR to have regular access to these facilities. Visits began in 2014, and UNHCR was able to meet with 26 detained asylum seekers during that year.[36]

     

     

    [1] FIDH, “Angola: Thousands of African nationals suffer serious human rights’ violation”, Press Release published on December, 26th 2014. https://www.fidh.org/en/region/Africa/angola/angola-thousands-of-african-nationals-suffer-serious-human-rights

    [2] RedeAngola, “More than half a million illegal immigrants in the country”, Independent Newspaper, June 2015. http://www.redeangola.info/mais-de-meio-milhao-de-imigrantes-ilegais-no-pais/

    [3] Human Rights Watch, “Angola: Stop Rape, Abuse of Congolese Migrants”, May 21st, 2012. https://www.hrw.org/news/2012/05/21/angola-stop-rape-abuse-congolese-migrants

    [4] Human Rights Watch, “Sexual Violence and other Abuses against Congolese Migrants during Expulsions from Angola”. Published in May 2012. https://www.hrw.org/report/2012/05/20/if-you-come-back-we-will-kill-you/sexual-violence-and-other-abuses-against

    [5] United States Department of State, 2014 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Angola, 25 June 2015, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/559bd58612.html

    [6] CEDAW, Concluding observations on the sixth periodic report of Angola adopted by the Committee at its fifty fourth session (11 February – 1 March 2013). Published in March 2013. http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2fPPRiCAqhKb7yhsgcjdm0xgERNaIXh22nhTUl1LBTO%2f%2bb9UThVCaNsXxMeYhezGPw0XinE%2fRvZ7Il%2fTyX%2f%2fC15yrlzSutPQOoRk2hKMDEVbGw6ROB0X5Ck%2f5RK

    [7] Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants, Communications Report of Special Procedures: Communications sent, 16 March to 31 May 2012; Replies received, 16 May to 31 July 2012. Published in 2014 prior to the UPR 20th session in the Compilation prepared by the OHCHR. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G14/139/84/PDF/G1413984.pdf?OpenElement

    [8]OHCHR, High Commissioner’s statement, Universal Periodic Review: Angola, August 2014, http://www.upr-info.org/sites/default/files/document/angola/session_20_-_october_2014/a_hrc_wg.6_20_ago_2_e.pdf

    [9] Law Regulating the Legal Status of Foreigners in the Republic of Angola, Law No. 2/07 of 31 May, entered into force in November 2007. http://www.sme.ao/attachments/article/234/Law%20No.%202-07%20of%2031%20May.pdf

    [10] United States Department of State, 2015 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Angola, 13 April 2016, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/571612a715.html

    [11] Law Regulating the Legal Status of Foreigners in the Republic of Angola, Law No. 2/07 of 31 May, entered into force in November 2007. http://www.sme.ao/attachments/article/234/Law%20No.%202-07%20of%2031%20May.pdf

    [12] Article 32 “Expulsion Order”, Law Regulating the Legal Status of Foreigners in the Republic of Angola, Law No. 2/07 of 31 May, entered into force in November 2007. http://www.sme.ao/attachments/article/234/Law%20No.%202-07%20of%2031%20May.pdf

    [13] Article 27, Law Regulating the Legal Status of Foreigners in the Republic of Angola, Law No. 2/07 of 31 May, entered into force in November 2007. http://www.sme.ao/attachments/article/234/Law%20No.%202-07%20of%2031%20May.pdf

    [14] Article 38, Law Regulating the Legal Status of Foreigners in the Republic of Angola, Law No. 2/07 of 31 May, entered into force in November 2007. http://www.sme.ao/attachments/article/234/Law%20No.%202-07%20of%2031%20May.pdf

    [15] Human Rights Watch, “Sexual Violence and other Abuses against Congolese Migrants during Expulsions from Angola”. Published in May 2012. https://www.hrw.org/report/2012/05/20/if-you-come-back-we-will-kill-you/sexual-violence-and-other-abuses-against

    [16]Article 32 “Expulsion Order”, Law Regulating the Legal Status of Foreigners in the Republic of Angola, Law No. 2/07 of 31 May, entered into force in November 2007. http://www.sme.ao/attachments/article/234/Law%20No.%202-07%20of%2031%20May.pdf

    [17] France 24, “Immigrants run for cover as Angola rounds up hundreds’”, 12 December 2014. http://observers.france24.com/en/20141223-arrests-foreigners-angola-luanda-prison

    [18] Articles 21 and 33, Law Regulating the Legal Status of Foreigners in the Republic of Angola, Law No. 2/07 of 31 May, entered into force in November 2007. http://www.sme.ao/attachments/article/234/Law%20No.%202-07%20of%2031%20May.pdf

    [19] United States Department of State, 2015 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Angola, 13 April 2016, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/571612a715.html

    [20] RedeAngola, “More than half a million illegal immigrants in the country”, Independent Newspaper, June 2015. http://www.redeangola.info/mais-de-meio-milhao-de-imigrantes-ilegais-no-pais/

    [21] United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2015). Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 2015 Revision (United Nations database, POP/DB/MIG/Stock/ Rev.2015). See www.unmigration.org

    [22] UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Submission by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) For the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights' Compilation Report – Universal Periodic Review: Angola, March 2014, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/5541d7954.html

    [23] Committee on the Rights of the Child, Submission by the CRC For the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights' Compilation Report – Universal Periodic Review: Angola, CRC/C/AGO/CO/2-4, para. 63., August 2014. http://www.upr-info.org/sites/default/files/document/angola/session_20_-_october_2014/a_hrc_wg.6_20_ago_2_e.pdf

    [24] UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Submission by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) For the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights' Compilation Report – Universal Periodic Review: Angola, March 2014, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/5541d7954.html

    [25] Angolan Parliament, Law 10/2015 on Asylum and Refugees Status. Entered into force on June 17th, 2015.

    [26] Article 29, Law Regulating the Legal Status of Foreigners in the Republic of Angola, Law No. 2/07 of 31 May, entered into force in November 2007. http://www.sme.ao/attachments/article/234/Law%20No.%202-07%20of%2031%20May.pdf

    [27] Article 104, Law Regulating the Legal Status of Foreigners in the Republic of Angola, Law No. 2/07 of 31 May, entered into force in November 2007. http://www.sme.ao/attachments/article/234/Law%20No.%202-07%20of%2031%20May.pdf

    [28] Human Rights Watch, “Sexual Violence and other Abuses against Congolese Migrants during Expulsions from Angola”. Published in May 2012. https://www.hrw.org/report/2012/05/20/if-you-come-back-we-will-kill-you/sexual-violence-and-other-abuses-against

    [29] United States Department of State, 2015 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Angola, 13 April 2016, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/571612a715.html

    [30] FIDH, “Angola: Thousands of African nationals suffer serious human rights’ violation”, Press Release published on December, 26th 2014. https://www.fidh.org/en/region/Africa/angola/angola-thousands-of-african-nationals-suffer-serious-human-rights

    [31] UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Submission by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) For the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights' Compilation Report – Universal Periodic Review: Angola, March 2014, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/5541d7954.html

    [32] Angola Press Agency, “Angola: Over 100 illegal immigrants detained in Lunda Norte Province”, July 1st 2015. http://allafrica.com/stories/201507010642.html

    [33] UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Submission by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) For the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights' Compilation Report – Universal Periodic Review: Angola, March 2014, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/5541d7954.html

    [34] FIDH, “Angola: Thousands of African nationals suffer serious human rights’ violation”, Press Release published on December, 26th 2014. https://www.fidh.org/en/region/Africa/angola/angola-thousands-of-african-nationals-suffer-serious-human-rights

    [35]International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), Annual Report 2014 - Yaounde (regional), 9 June 2015. http://www.refworld.org/docid/558131b042.html

    [36] UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Submission by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) For the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights' Compilation Report – Universal Periodic Review: Angola, March 2014, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/5541d7954.html

    ENFORCEMENT DATA

    Total Migration Detainee Entries: Flow (year)
    0
    Alternative Total Migration Detainee Entries: Flow (year)
    0
    Total Migration Detainees: Flow + Stock (year)
    Not Available
    2019
    Average Daily Population (year)
    0
    Total Number of Children Placed in Immigration Detention (Year)
    Not Available
    2017
    Criminal Prison Population (Year)
    24,165
    2015
    21,634
    2013
    19,898
    2011
    16,183
    2009
    8,300
    2005
    4,975
    2002
    5,147
    1999
    Prison Population Rate (per 100,000 of National Population)
    96
    2015
    105
    2013
    100
    2011
    87
    2009
    50
    2005
    33
    2002
    39
    1999

    POPULATION DATA

    Population (Year)
    32,900,000
    2020
    25,022,000
    2015
    20,200,000
    2012
    International Migrants (Year)
    669,479
    2019
    106,800
    2015
    87,400
    2013
    International Migrants as Percentage of Population (Year)
    0.4
    2013
    Refugees (Year)
    25,793
    2019
    39,865
    2018
    41,127
    2017
    15,537
    2016
    15,555
    2015
    23,783
    2014
    Ratio of Refugees Per 1000 Inhabitants (Year)
    0.6
    2016
    0.64
    2014
    1.2
    2012
    New Asylum Applications (Year)
    45
    2019
    12,270
    2014
    Stateless Persons (Year)
    0
    2016
    0
    2014

    SOCIO-ECONOMIC DATA & POLLS

    Gross Domestic Product per Capita (in USD)
    5,668
    2013
    Remittances to the Country
    18
    2010
    Remittances From the Country
    714
    2010
    Unemployment Rate
    2014
    Net Official Development Assistance (ODA) (in Millions USD)
    231.3
    2014
    Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP)
    149 (Low)
    2014

    B. Attitudes and Perceptions

    MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

    LEGAL & REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

    Do Migration Detainees Have Constitutional Guarantees?
    Yes (Constitution of the Republic of Angola Article 63: "Any person deprived of their liberty must be informed at the time of their imprisonment or detention of the respective reasons and their rights" Article 67: "No-one may be detained, imprisoned or brought to trial unless under the terms of the law, and all defendants or prisoners shall be guaranteed the right to a defence, appeal and legal counsel") 2010 2010
    2010 2010
    Detention-Related Legislation
    Law Regulating the Legal Status of Foreigners in the Republic of Angola, Law No. 2/07 of 31 May, entered into force in November 2007. (2007) 2007
    2007

    GROUNDS FOR MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

    Immigration-Status-Related Grounds
    Detention for unauthorised entry or stay
    2016
    Detention to effect removal
    2016
    Detention for failing to respect a voluntary removal order
    2016
    Criminal Penalties for Immigration-Related Violations
    Yes (No)
    2016
    Children & Other Vulnerable Groups
    Asylum seekers (Not mentioned) Yes
    2014
    Pregnant women (Not mentioned) Yes
    2014
    Accompanied minors (Not mentioned) Yes
    2014
    Unaccompanied minors (Not mentioned) Yes
    2014
    Mandatory Detention
    Yes (All apprehended non-citizens who do not have proper documentation)
    2016
    Yes (Non-citizens who have been placed in removal proceedings)
    2016
    Re-Entry Ban
    Yes
    2016

    LENGTH OF MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

    Maximum Length of Administrative Immigration Detention
    Number of Days: 15
    2016

    MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION INSTITUTIONS

    Custodial Authorities
    (Service for Migration and Foreigners)
    2011
    (Service for Migration and Foreigners)
    2008
    (Service for Migration and Foreigners)
    2008
    Detention Facility Management
    Service for Migration and Foreigners (Governmental)
    2011
    Service for Migration and Foreigners (Governmental)
    2008
    Types of Detention Facilities Used in Practice
    2015
    2015

    PROCEDURAL STANDARDS & SAFEGUARDS

    DETENTION MONITORS

    Types of Authorised Detention Monitoring Institutions
    National Ombudsman (Provedor di Justiça di direitos) (National Human Rights Institution (or Ombudsperson) (NHRI))
    2016
    Does NHRI Visit Immigration Detention Centres?
    Yes
    2014
    Does NHRI Receive Complaints?
    Yes
    2014

    TRANSPARENCY

    READMISSION/RETURN/EXTRADITION AGREEMENTS

    COVID-19

    HEALTH CARE

    COVID-19 DATA

    Has the Country Ceased or Restricted Deportations/Removals During any Period After the Onset of the Pandemic?
    No
    2021
    Has the Country Released People from Criminal Prisons During the Pandemic?
    Yes
    2020
    Has the Country Restricted Access to Asylum Procedures?
    Yes
    2020
    Has the Country Commenced a National Vaccination Campaign?
    Yes
    2021
    Have Populations of Concern Been Included/Excluded From the National Vaccination Campaign?
    2021

    INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

    International Treaties Ratified
    Ratification Year
    Observation Date
    CRSSP, Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons
    2019
    2019
    CAT, Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
    2019
    2019
    ICERD, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
    2019
    2019
    CTOCSP, Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
    2014
    2018
    CTOCTP, Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children
    2014
    2018
    OPCRPD, Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
    2014
    2014
    CRPD, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
    2014
    2014
    ICCPR, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
    1992
    1992
    ICESCR, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
    1992
    1992
    VCCR, Vienna Convention on Consular Relations
    1990
    1990
    CRC, Convention on the Rights of the Child
    1990
    1990
    CEDAW, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
    1986
    1986
    PCRSR, Protocol to the Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
    1981
    1981
    CRSR, Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
    1981
    1981
    Ratio of relevant international treaties ratified
    Ratio: 14/19
    Individual Complaints Procedures
    Acceptance Year
    CRPD, Optional Protocol to o the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2014
    2014
    CEDAW, Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, 1999 2007
    2007
    ICCPR, First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966 1992
    1992
    Ratio of Complaints Procedures Accepted
    Observation Date
    3/5
    3/5
    Relevant Recommendations Issued by Treaty Bodies
    Recommendation Year
    Observation Date
    Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 4. The Committee urges the State party to: (a) Ensure the implementation of the law on the right of asylum and refugee status and put in place fair and effective asylum procedures, embracing protection against refoulement; (b) Ensure that detention of asylum seekers and refugees is used only as a last resort and that those detained in reception centres are provided with legal safeguards and have access to legal counsel as well as interpretation services; (c) Establish alternatives to the detention of children and families with children; (d) Issue and renew identification documents for asylum seekers and refugees in a timely manner so as to facilitate their access to basic social services, and prevent their arbitrary detention; (e) Improve the material conditions of reception centres and ensure that asylum seekers staying in these centres are guaranteed an adequate standard of living and enjoy access to basic social services; (f) Introduce the necessary legislative and policy amendments to remove the requirement that asylum seekers must reside in closed reception centres. 2016
    2016
    2018
    Human Rights Committee

    §16. [...] ensure that undocumented migrants are protected against refoulement and if detained are entitled to bring proceedings before a court that will decide on the lawfulness of their detention.

    2013
    2013
    2013
    Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women § 46. The State party of its obligation of non-refoulement under international law, and in line with its general recommendation No. 32, and that all persons who have entered its territory have a right to obtain access to refugee status determination procedures. It recalls its previous concluding observations ( CEDAW/C/AGO/CO/6 , para. 20 (f)) the State party: (a) Ensure that all asylum-seeking women and girls have access to registration and gender-sensitive, fair and speedy refugee status determination processes, as well as to legal representation and legal remedies; (b) Cease the extradition, deportation, expulsion or other forms of removal of asylum-seeking and migrant women and girls from the territory of the State party to the territory of another State when there are substantial grounds to believe that there is a real risk of irreparable harm and protect those women from such practices; (c) Protect migrant and asylum-seeking women and girls from all forms of violence, including gender-based and sexual violence, investigate, prosecute and punish the perpetrators of such acts, including members of the State party ’s security forces, and establish mechanisms for redress and rehabilitation; (d) Enhance efforts to guarantee access for migrant and asylum-seeking women and girls to employment, accommodations, education, health-care services and other support, including food, clothing and the necessary social services, appropriate to their particular needs. 2019
    2019

    NON-TREATY-BASED INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISMS

    Relevant Recommendations from the UN Universal Periodic Review
    Observation Date
    Yes 2010
    2017
    Yes 2019
    No 2014

    REGIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISMS

    Regional Legal Instruments
    Year of Ratification (Treaty) / Transposed (Directive) / Adoption (Regulation)
    Observation Date
    ACHPR, African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights 1990
    1990
    2017
    ACRWC, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child 1992
    1992
    2017
    APRW, Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (Maputo Protocol) 2007
    2007
    2017

    GOVERNANCE SYSTEM

    Legal Tradition(s)
    Common law

    DETENTION COSTS

    OUTSOURCING

    FOREIGN SOURCES OF FUNDING FOR DETENTION OPERATIONS