Burundi

Not Available

Immigration detainees

2019

No Data

Detained children

12,883

New asylum applications

2019

78,465

Refugees

2019

321,018

International migrants

2019

Overview

Types of facilities used for migration-related detention
Administrative Ad Hoc Criminal Unknown

Related Reading

15 April 2021

Human Rights Watch, “Burundi: Free Forcibly Returned Refugees,” 8 March 2021, https://www.hrw.org/news/2021/03/08/burundi-free-forcibly-returned-refugees
Human Rights Watch, “Burundi: Free Forcibly Returned Refugees,” 8 March 2021, https://www.hrw.org/news/2021/03/08/burundi-free-forcibly-returned-refugees

Since 2015, when deadly clashes were witnessed surrounding Burundi’s presidential election, large numbers of Burundians have fled the country. Today, some 150,000 are estimated to be living in neighbouring Tanzania. Burundian authorities have repeatedly spoken of the need for refugees to return from exile, and in recent years reports have emerged highlighting instances in which Burundians have been abducted, tortured, arbitrarily detained, and forcibly returned to Burundi by Tanzanian authorities--reportedly with the assistance from Burundi. On 13 April 2021, UN experts--including members of the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention and the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances--criticised the Burundian authorities’ involvement in these rights abuses. (For more information on these reports, see 14 April Tanzania update on this platform).

At least eight Burundians forcibly returned are known to have been detained without charge in Bubanza Prison and Muramvya Prison. Despite calls to release the detainees, on 26 February 2021 the Muha High Court in Bujumbura ruled against their provisional release--despite the fact that the prosecution had failed to produce any evidence to justify their continued detention.

Conditions in these prisons--and others in the country--are known to be extremely poor. In April 2020, the UN Commission of Enquiry on Burundi reported that prisons were severely overcrowded, and that detainees faced restricted access to medical care, food, and hygiene supplies, raising concerns for the safety of detainees amidst the pandemic. (In May 2020, Muramvya Prison--which has capacity for 100 detainees--was confining 866.)


08 September 2020

A Voter Holding Her ID with her Mouth While Washing Her Hands Before Voting in the Presidential Election in Giheta, (Berthier Mugiraneza, AP Photo,
A Voter Holding Her ID with her Mouth While Washing Her Hands Before Voting in the Presidential Election in Giheta, (Berthier Mugiraneza, AP Photo, "Burundi : Peur et répression dans la réponse au Covid-19," Human Rights Watch, 24 June 2020, https://www.hrw.org/fr/news/2020/06/24/burundi-peur-et-repression-dans-la-reponse-au-covid-19)

The humanitarian challenges facing Burundi as it struggles to respond to the Covid-19 pandemic stem from the large number of nationals who fled the country seeking refuge in nearby countries and are now returning. According to UNHCR, as of June 2020, there were 334,000 Burundian refugees worldwide, including some 165,000 in Tanzania, 72,000 in Rwanda, 104,000 in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and 50,000 in Uganda. Between February and June 2020, 8,728 Burundians were “voluntarily” returned to the country despite the fact that repatriations were suspended during May-June because of elections in the country.

Efforts to investigate the impact that Covid-19 may be having on returnees is severely hampered by the fact that the government of Burundi has not provided much public information about the pandemic. Additionally, according to Human Rights Watch, the government has prevented doctors and nurses from responding adequately to the crisis. Since 31 March, a total of 400 Covid-19 cases, including one death, have been confirmed, according to data from the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). Compounding health concerns, as of June there were reportedly 857 measle cases in one province (Bujumbura Mairie), including at the Cishmere transit centre and two refugee camps in Ruyigi and Cankuzo provinces.

While prison visits have been suspended since 1 April, several cases of Covid-19 were confirmed in Mpimba, Rumonge, and Ngozi prisons. Deaths of inmates have been reported in June. Human Rights Watch contacted an inmate from Ngozi prison, who confirmed that despite Covid-19 related deaths in the prison, sanitary measures were still not applied. The overcrowding prevents social distancing, and while some are purportedly in quarantine, they continue to use shared spaces. On 16 April, during the presentation of the National Commission for Human Rights’ 2020 report, the president of the commission revealed that the country’s prison capacity is 4,194 but that the prison occupation rate was at 273.3 percent on 27 December 2019. Of the 11,464 prisoners, 5,224 were in preventive detention, nearly 50 percent of the entire prison population. The country’s prisons do not have solitary confinement cells and often prisoners must sleep in dormitories holding more than 50 people.

In a report from 31 May, L’Association des Chrétiens pour l’Abolition de la Torture au Burundi (ACAT) said that there has been a mass incarceration of political opponents since the beginning of the election campaign in April, exasperating the already severe overcrowding problem in Rumonge Prison and Muramvya Prison. ACAT described prison conditions as inhumane and degrading. Multiple reports of physical abuse and lack of access to medical care have been documented by the organization.


Last updated:

ENFORCEMENT DATA

Total Migration Detainees: Flow + Stock (year)
Not Available
2019
Criminal Prison Population (Year)
10,049
2016
9,481
2010
7,022
2007
7,526
2004
9,013
2001
7,525
1996
Percentage of Foreign Prisoners (Year)
1.2
2012
Prison Population Rate (per 100,000 of National Population)
86
2016
113
2010
92
2007
107
2004
139
2001
122
1996

POPULATION DATA

Population (Year)
11,900,000
2020
International Migrants (Year)
321,018
2019
Refugees (Year)
78,465
2019
71,507
2018
62,361
2017
57,462
2016
53,363
2015
52,936
2014
Ratio of Refugees Per 1000 Inhabitants (Year)
4.97
2016
New Asylum Applications (Year)
12,883
2019
7,185
2016
Stateless Persons (Year)
974
2016

SOCIO-ECONOMIC DATA & POLLS

B. Attitudes and Perceptions

MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

LEGAL & REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

GROUNDS FOR MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

LENGTH OF MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION INSTITUTIONS

PROCEDURAL STANDARDS & SAFEGUARDS

DETENTION MONITORS

TRANSPARENCY

READMISSION/RETURN/EXTRADITION AGREEMENTS

COVID-19

HEALTH CARE

COVID-19 DATA

INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

International Treaties Ratified
Ratification Year
Observation Date
OPCRPD, Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
2014
2018
ICERD, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
1977
2017
ICESCR, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
1990
2017
ICCPR, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
1990
2017
CEDAW, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
1992
2017
CAT, Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
1993
2017
CRC, Convention on the Rights of the Child
1990
2017
CRSR, Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
1963
2017
CTOCTP, Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children
2012
2017
CTOCSP, Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
2012
2017
CRPD, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
2014
2014
OPCAT, Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
2013
2013
Ratio of relevant international treaties ratified
Ratio: 12/19
Individual Complaints Procedures
Acceptance Year
CAT, declaration under article 22 of the Convention 2003
2003
Ratio of Complaints Procedures Accepted
Observation Date
1/5
2017

NON-TREATY-BASED INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISMS

Relevant Recommendations from the UN Universal Periodic Review
Observation Date
No 2009
2017
No 2013
2017

REGIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISMS

Regional Legal Instruments
Year of Ratification (Treaty) / Transposed (Directive) / Adoption (Regulation)
Observation Date
ACHPR, African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights 1989
1989
2017
ACRWC, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child 2004
2004
2017

GOVERNANCE SYSTEM

Legal Tradition(s)
Civil law
2017
Customary law
2017

DETENTION COSTS

OUTSOURCING

FOREIGN SOURCES OF FUNDING FOR DETENTION OPERATIONS