Kyrgyzstan

Not Available

Immigration detainees

2019

Not Available

Detained children

2017

169

New asylum applications

2019

347

Refugees

2019

200,260

International migrants

2019

Overview

Types of facilities used for migration-related detention
Administrative Ad Hoc Criminal Unknown

17 December 2020

Migrant Camp in the Orenburg Region in Russia, (Current Time,
Migrant Camp in the Orenburg Region in Russia, (Current Time, "448 More Kyrgyz Citizens Return Home from Orenburg Region," Kloop, 22 May 2020, https://kloop.kg/blog/2020/05/22/iz-orenburgskoj-oblasti-na-rodinu-vozvrashhayutsya-eshhe-448-kyrgyzstantsev/)

Kyrgyzstan considers labour migration to be “part of the national development strategy” with remittances accounting for a substantial part of the country’s economy. Large numbers of Kyrgyz nationals work in countries across Asia and Europe, including in particular Russia (which recorded 959,000 border crossings by Kyrgyz nationals in 2019), Kazakhstan, and Turkey. In 2019, 29.2 percent of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) was made up of remittances, which places Kyrgyzstan amongst the top five countries with respect to remittances as a share of GDP.

The COVID-19 pandemic, however, has underscored the economic vulnerability of countries that rely on remittances. As previously reported on this platform (see 19 November Uzbekistan update), labour migrants in Russia were almost twice as likely to lose jobs than Russian nationals. According to the Kyrgyz Embassy in Russia, more than half of all Kyrgyz migrants in the country lost their jobs during the pandemic--a fact that has led to a significant drop in remittances and growing concerns for the Kyrgyz economy.

During the early months of the pandemic, when borders temporarily closed and flights were suspended, many Kygyz migrant workers who sought to return home due to job losses found themselves stranded in Russia. When rumours circulated that the border would open in Orenburg Oblast to enable transit through Kazakhstan, an estimated 600 Kyrgyz migrants arrived in the area, where they were forced to wait for several weeks in overcrowded tent camps until buses arrived. By 22 May, those stranded in the area had been returned to Kyrgyzstan--although upon arrival, many were placed in a newly erected quarantine facility in the Semetey Observation facility (formerly the U.S. Ganci Airbase) in Chui Oblast. On 18 May, a group of detained returnees protested their confinement in the facility--and rumours that they would continue to undergo quarantine restrictions while those testing positive for COVID-19 were being released. According to media reports, several returnees attacked doctors and attempted to overturn an ambulance. Following the riot, most of the returnees were permitted to leave and to complete their quarantine period at home.

By 24 August, some 35,469 Kyrgyz migrants had been returned from Russia via charter flights and bus transfers. Nevertheless, the Kyrgyz government faced criticism for its delays in returning nationals stranded in Russia. Kyrgyz authorities argued that employment opportunities remained more favourable in Russia. The Kyrgyz Ambassador to Russia said, “The Russian economy is stronger and more stable than ours. After quarantine, the economic crisis will continue around the world. I advised our countrymen to wait here and not to go anywhere.”

There have been sporadic reports about the use of immigration detention in Kyrgyzstan. In mid-2020, Human Rights Watch raised concerns regarding the detention of an Uzbek asylum seeker (journalist Bobomurod Abdullaev) in the Kyrgyz State Committee for National Security (GKNB) detention facility. Previously, in 2006, UNHCR raised concerns regarding the detention of four Uzbek refugees (fleeing from the unrest and security crackdown in Uzbekistan’s Andijan region) in Osh Pre-Trial Detention Centre. In 2020, this facility was subject to complaints, including accusations of ill-treatment by detainees. The GDP has been unable to confirm whether the centre continues to confine non-nationals for immigration-related reasons, or what steps--if any--authorities have taken to protect detainees during the pandemic.


Last updated:

ENFORCEMENT DATA

Total Detainees/ Stock & Flow (Year)
Not Available
2019
Total Number of Children Placed in Immigration Detention (Year)
Not Available
2017
Criminal Prison Population (Year)
10,030
2016
9,828
2012
10,163
2010
15,127
2007
16,934
2004
18,400
2001
21,254
1998
13,775
1994
9,707
1992
Percentage of Foreign Prisoners (Year)
4.9
2016
4.8
2012
Prison Population Rate (per 100,000 of National Population)
167
2016
181
2012
183
2010
284
2007
329
2004
369
2001
446
1998
304
1994
218
1992

POPULATION DATA

Population (Year)
6,500,000
2020
6,500,000
2020
5,940,000
2015
International Migrants (Year)
200,260
2019
204,400
2015
International Migrants as Percentage of Population (Year)
3.4
2015
Refugees (Year)
347
2019
333
2018
341
2017
334
2016
354
2015
482
2014
Ratio of Refugees Per 1000 Inhabitants (Year)
0.06
2016
0.08
2014
New Asylum Applications (Year)
169
2019
181
2016
256
2014
Refugee Recognition Rate (Year)
25
2014
Stateless Persons (Year)
548
2018
855
2017
2,334
2016
13,678
2015

SOCIO-ECONOMIC DATA & POLLS

Gross Domestic Product per Capita (in USD)
1,190
2018
1,278
2014
Remittances to the Country
2,482
2018
2,245
2014
Remittances From the Country
452
2017
Unemployment Rate
2018
2014
Net Official Development Assistance (ODA) (in Millions USD)
624.1
2014
Human Development Index Ranking (UNDP)
120 (Medium)
2015

B. Attitudes and Perceptions

MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

LEGAL & REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

GROUNDS FOR MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

LENGTH OF MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION

MIGRATION-RELATED DETENTION INSTITUTIONS

PROCEDURAL STANDARDS & SAFEGUARDS

DETENTION MONITORS

TRANSPARENCY

READMISSION/RETURN/EXTRADITION AGREEMENTS

COVID-19

HEALTH CARE

COVID-19 DATA

INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

International Treaties Ratified
Ratification Year
Observation Date
CRPD, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
2019
2019
CTOCTP, Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children
2003
2017
CTOCSP, Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
2003
2017
VCCR, Vienna Convention on Consular Relations
1994
2017
ICERD, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
1997
2017
ICESCR, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
1994
2017
ICCPR, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
1994
2017
CEDAW, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
1997
2017
CAT, Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
1997
2017
CRC, Convention on the Rights of the Child
1994
2017
ICRMW, International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
2003
2017
CRSR, Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
1996
2017
OPCAT, Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
2008
2008
Ratio of relevant international treaties ratified
Ratio: 13/19
Individual Complaints Procedures
Acceptance Year
Observation Date
ICCPR, First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966 1994
1994
2017
CEDAW, Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, 1999 2002
2002
2017
Ratio of Complaints Procedures Accepted
Observation Date
2/7
2017

NON-TREATY-BASED INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISMS

Relevant Recommendations from the UN Universal Periodic Review
Observation Date
No 2010
2017
No 2015
2017

REGIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISMS

GOVERNANCE SYSTEM

Legal Tradition(s)
Civil law
2017

DETENTION COSTS

OUTSOURCING

FOREIGN SOURCES OF FUNDING FOR DETENTION OPERATIONS